Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition


Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition

Author: Frederic Martini,
Judi Nath,
Edwin Bartholomew.
Edition: 11th Edition
Year: 2017
Language: English
ISBN 13: 978-0134396026
Publisher: Pearson
ISBN 10: 134396022
Pages: 1309
File: PDF
Price: 9.99$
Digital delivery: Via Email check your SPAM

Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition

Using Art Effectively to Teach the Toughest Topics in A&P

Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology helps students succeed in the challenging A&P course with an easy-to-understand narrative, precise visuals, and steadfast accuracy. With the 11th Edition, the author team draws from recent research exploring how students use and digest visual information to help students use art more effectively to learn A&P.  New book features encourage students to view and consider figures in the textbook, and new narrated videos guide students through complex physiology figures to help them deconstruct and better understand complicated processes. Instructors can also request a new handbook by Lori Garrett, entitled The Art of Teaching A&P: Six Easy Lessons to Improve Student Learningwhich explores some of the most common challenges encountered when using art to teach A&P, alongside strategies to address these challenges.


The Eleventh Edition of Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology is a comprehensive textbook that fulfills the needs of today’s students while addressing the concerns of their teachers. We focused our attention on the question “How can we make this information meaningful, manageable, and comprehensible?” During the revision process, we drew upon our content knowledge, research skills, artistic talents, and years of classroom experience to make this edition the best yet.

The broad changes to this edition are presented in the New to the Eleventh Edition section below, and the specific changes are presented in the Chapter-by-Chapter Changes in the Eleventh Edition section that follows.

New to the Eleventh Edition

In addition to the many technical changes in this edition, such as updated statistics and anatomy and physiology descriptions, we have made the following key changes:

  • NEW SmartArt Videos help students better navigate key, complex pieces of art. Author Kevin Petti walks students through select pieces of art from the book, providing additional background and detail.
  • NEW design for homeostasis figures replaces former Tenth Edition figures in various chapters.
  • NEW Questions have been added to selected figures in all chapters to reinforce text–art integration.
  • The easier narrative leads to improved clarity of the text. Clearly organized text uses simpler, shorter, more active sentences, with a reading level that makes reading and
    studying easier for students.
  • Anatomical terms have been updated based on Terminologia Anatomica, Terminologia Histological, and Terminologia Embryologica. Eponyms continue to be included within the narrative.

Hallmark Features of This Text

  • 50 Spotlight Figures provide highly visual one- and two-page presentations of tough topics in the book, with a particular focus on physiology.
  • 29 Clinical Cases get students motivated for their future careers. Each chapter opens with a story-based Clinical Case related to the chapter content and ends with a Clinical Case Wrap-Up.
  • The repetition of the chapter-opening Learning Outcomes below the coordinated section headings within the chapters underscores the connection between the
    HAPS-based Learning Outcomes and the associated teaching points. Author Judi Nath sat on the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) committee that developed the HAPS Learning Outcomes recommended to A&P teachers, and the Learning Outcomes in this book are based on them.

Chapter-by-Chapter Changes in the Eleventh Edition

This annotated Table of Contents provides examples of revision highlights in each chapter of the Eleventh Edition. For a more complete list of changes, please contact the publisher.

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Added a new Section 1–1 on using the text and art in tandem.
New separate section (1-4) on medical terminology.
Reorganized the chapter to start with simpler anatomical topics and build to more complex physiological ones. Homeostasis and the roles of negative feedback now conclude the chapter as Sections 1–7 and 1–8, respectively.
NEW Figure 1–1 A Conceptual Framework for Learning
NEW Clinical Note: Habeas Corpus (“You Shall Have the Body”)
NEW Clinical Note: The Sounds of the Body
Figure 1–8 The Control of Room Temperature (new homeostasis design)
Figure 1–9 Negative Feedback: Control of Body Temperature (new homeostasis design)
Former Spotlight Figure 1–10 Diagnostic Imaging Techniques is now a Clinical Note.
Questions added to Figures 1–3, 1–4, 1–5, 1–6, and 1–9.

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization

Clinical Case: What Is Wrong with My Baby? revised
Clinical Note: Radiation Sickness revised
NEW Figure 2–1 Hydrogen Atom with Electron Cloud
NEW Section 2–9 gathers together coverage of monomers, polymers, and functional groups to provide an overview of the organic compounds.
Table 2–8. Turnover Times moved to the Appendix as Turnover Times of Organic Components of Four Cell Types.
NEW Clinical Note: Too Sweet on Sugar?
Questions added to Figures 2–3, 2–8, 2–9, 2–12, 2–15, 2–17, 2–24, and 2–26.

Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization

Clinical Case: The Beat Must Go On! revised (new title)
Figure 3–2 The Plasma Membrane revised (newly added part b)
Figure 3–8 Lysosome Functions revised
NEW Clinical Note: Lysosomal Storage Disease
NEW Clinical Note: Free Radicals
Figure 3–13 The Process of Translation revised
• NEW Clinical Note: Drugs and the Plasma Membrane
• Figure 3–21 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis revised
• Spotlight Figure 3–23 Stages of a Cell’s Life Cycle revised
• Questions added to Figures 3–3, 3–9, 3–11, 3–15, 3–17, 3–18, and 3–19.

Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization

• NEW Figure 4–1 An Orientation to the Body’s Tissues
• Figure 4–2 Cell Junctions revised (basal lamina replaces the clear layer and reticular lamina replaces dense layer)
• Table 4–1.Classifying Epithelia revised
• Connective tissue proper has been separated out into its own section, Section 4–5. This section now also includes the discussion of fasciae.
• Figure 4–9 The Cells and Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper revised (added fibrocyte)
• Figure 4–10 Embryonic Connective Tissues revised (now share labels)
• The fluid connective tissues blood and lymph now have their own section, Section 4–6.
• Questions added to Figures 4–3, 4–14, 4–16, 4–18, and 4–19.

Chapter 5: The Integumentary System

• NEW Clinical Case: He Has Fish Skin!
• Figure 5–1 The Components of the Integumentary System revised
• The dermis and hypodermis sections have been moved up to become Sections 5–2 and 5–3, respectively, to give students a more anatomical background to understand the later physiological sections.
• Spotlight Figure 5–3 The Epidermis revised (matched SEM and art)
• NEW Clinical Note: Nips, Tucks, and Shots
• Figure 5–12 Hair Follicles and Hairs revised (new part b)
• Figure 5–14 Sweat Glands revised (uses eccrine sweat glands as a primary term)
• NEW Clinical Note: Your Skin, A Mirror of Your Health
• NEW Clinical Note: Burns and Grafts
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 5–15 Integration of The INTEGUMENTARY system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 5–1, 5–6, 5–8, 5–10, and 5–13.

Chapter 6: Bones and Bone Structure (formerly called Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure)

• NEW Figure 6–4 Bone Lacking a Calcified Matrix
• Figure 6–5 Types of Bone Cells revised (art and layout to parallel text)
• NEW Figure 6–6 Osteons of Compact Bone (former part a removed)
• We now clarify in the section titles that Section 6–5 covers both interstitial and appositional growth, while remodeling is covered in Section 6–6.
• Spotlight Figure 6–17 Types of Fractures and Steps in Repair revised (tibia replaces humerus to better match photograph)
• Questions added to Figures 6–3, 6–5, 6–7, and 6–10.

Chapter 7: The Axial Skeleton

• Figure 7–2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull revised
• Figure 7–3 The Adult Skull revised (hyphenates the terms supraorbital and infra-orbital)
• Figure 7–9 The Ethmoid revised (ethmoidal labyrinth replaces lateral mass)
• Spotlight Figure 7–4 Sectional Anatomy of the Skull revised (updated trigeminal nerve [V] terminology)
• Figure 7–14 The Orbital Complex revised (art and photographs now share labels)
• Figure 7–15 The Nasal Complex revised (part b new art)
• Figure 7–17 The Vertebral Column revised (new color-coded vertebral regions)
• Figure 7–22 Sacrum and Coccyx revised (new coccyx label configuration)
• Questions added to Figures 7–16, 7–17, and 7–23.

Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton

• NEW Clinical Case: Timber!!
• Figure 8–6 Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand revised (carpal bones separated out into proximal and distal carpals)
• NEW Clinical Note: Shin Splints
• Clinical Note: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome includes a new illustration
• Questions added to Figures 8–1, 8–6, 8–8, and 8–12.

Chapter 9: Joints

• NEW Clinical Note: Bursitis and Bunions
• NEW Clinical Note: Dislocation
• Spotlight Figure 9–2 Joint Movement revised (headings labeled as parts a, b, and c; plane joint replaces gliding joint)
• Figure 9–5 Special Movements (part labels added; arrows moved onto photographs in new parts d and e)
• Section 9–5 now covers the hinge joints of the elbow and knee, while Section 9–6 covers the ball-and-socket shoulder and hip joints.
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 9–11 Integration of The SKELETAL system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 9–1, 9–3, 9–6, and 9–9.

Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue

• NEW Clinical Case: Keep on Keepin’ On
• Figure 10–1 The Organization of Skeletal Muscles revised (added tendon attachment to bone)
• Figure 10–5 Sarcomere Structure, Superficial and Cross-Sectional Views revised (new figure icon)
• Figure 10–6 Levels of Functional Organization in a Skeletal Muscle revised (new grouping of art)
• Figure 10–7 Thin and Thick Filaments revised (new art for parts b, c, and d)
• Spotlight Figure 10–9 Events at the Neuromuscular Junction revised (art now shows Na+ flow through membrane channels)
• Spotlight Figure 10–11 The Contraction Cycle and Cross-Bridge Formation revised (improved step boxes visibility)
• Figure 10–16 Effects of Repeated Stimulations revised (new art organization and explanatory text)
• Information about tension production at the level of skeletal muscles has been separated out into a new section, Section 10–6.
• Figure 10–20 Muscle Metabolism revised (text and art in the bottom box)
• Figure 10–21 Fast versus Slow Fibers revised (micrograph is a TEM, not LM)
• Coverage of muscle fatigue has been moved from the muscle metabolism section to the muscle performance section, Section 10–8.
• NEW Clinical Note: Electromyography
• Discussion on the effects of skeletal muscle aging has been moved from Chapter 11 and included with muscle hypertrophy and atrophy in Section 10–8.
• Questions added to Figures 10–3, 10–6, 10–14, and 10–21.

Chapter 11: The Muscular System

• NEW Clinical Case: Downward-Facing Dog
• Figure 11–1 Muscle Types Based on Pattern of Fascicle Organization revised
• Figure 11–2 The Three Classes of Levers revised (new icons for each lever)
• Spotlight Figure 11–3 Muscle Action revised (new art in part c)
• The introduction to axial and appendicular muscles has been made into a separate section, Section 11–5, to provide an overview before we cover the muscles in detail.
• NEW Clinical Note: Signs of Stroke
• Figure 11–12 Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm revised (added transversus thoracis label to part c)
• Figure 11–17 Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand revised (corrected leader for triceps brachii, medial head)
• Figure 11–18 Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers revised
• Figure 11–21 Muscles That Move the Leg revised (quadriceps femoris replaces quadriceps muscles)
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 11–24 Integration of The MUSCULAR system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 11–5, 11–6, 11–10, 11–17, 11–19, and 11–21.

Chapter 12: Nervous Tissue

• Chapter title changed from Neural Tissue to Nervous Tissue
• Section 12–1 includes a discussion of the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) as a third division of the nervous system
• Figure 12–1 A Functional Overview of the Nervous System revised (added a body figure to support text-art integration)
• Moved coverage of synapse structures from Section 12–2 into Section 12–7 so it is now right before students need it to understand synaptic function.
• Figure 12–3 Structural Classification of Neurons revised (moved part labels and text above art)
• Figure 12–5 Neuroglia in the CNS revised (deleted micrograph; label grouping for neuroglia)
• Schwann cell text updated (neurolemmocytes replaces neurilemma cells and neurolemma replaces neurilemma).
• Figure 12–7 Peripheral Nerve Regeneration after Injury revised
• Spotlight Figure 12–8 Resting Membrane Potential revised (text revised in first two columns)
• Figure 12–9 Electrochemical Gradients for Potassium and Sodium Ions revised (text revised in part c)
• Figure 12–11 Graded Potentials revised (text in step 2)
• NEW Spotlight Figure 12–13 Generation of an Action Potential revised (text in step boxes)
• Figure 12–14 Propagation of an Action Potential revised (added part labels)
• NEW Figure 12–16 Events in the Functioning of a Cholinergic Synapse revised (now runs across two pages; text in steps revised)
• Table 12–4 Representative Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators revised (endorphins separated from opioids)
• Figure 12–17 Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter and Receptor Function revised (chemically gated ion channel art now matches that in previous figures)
• Questions added to Figures 12–2, 12–4, and 12–16.

Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes

• Figure 13–1 An Overview of Chapters 13 and 14 revised
• Figure 13–2 Gross Anatomy of the Adult Spinal Cord revised (added new part b)
• Uses the term posterior and anterior in reference to spinal roots, ganglion, and rami instead of dorsal and ventral (e.g., Figure 13–3, 13–4, 13–5, and Spotlight Figure 13–8)
• Figure 13–6 A Peripheral Nerve revised (corrected magnified section in part a)
• NEW Figure 13–9 Nerve Plexuses and Peripheral Nerves revised (labels grouped and boxed)
• Figure 13–10 The Cervical Plexus revised (corrected cranial nerve the designation, e.g., accessory nerve [XI] replaces accessory nerve [N XI])
• Figure 13–12 The Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses revised (removed Clinical Note)
• Spotlight Figure 13–14 Spinal Reflexes revised (added part labels to better coordinate with text)
• Figure 13–15 The Classification of Reflexes revised (reorganized categories within inclusive boxes)
• Figure 13–17 The Plantar Reflex and Babinski Reflex revised (Babinski reflex replaces Babinski sign/positive Babinski reflex and plantar reflex replaces negative Babinski reflex)
• Questions added to Figures 13–3, 13–5, 13–9, and 13–15.

Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves

• Figure 14–1 An Introduction to Brain Structures and Functions revised (added part labels a–f to better coordinate with text)
• Figure 14–2 Ventricular System revised (ventricular system of the brain replaces ventricles of the brain)
• Figure 14–3 The Relationships among the Brain, Cranium, and Cranial Meninges revised periosteal cranial dura replaces dura mater [periosteal layer] and meningeal cranial dura replaces dura mater [meningeal layer])
• Figure 14–5 The Diencephalon and Brainstem revised (corrected cranial nerve designation, e.g., in Cranial Nerves box, CN replaces N for nerve designations.)
• The sections on the midbrain (now Section 14–5) and cerebellum (now Section 14–6) have been switched so that we now cover all of the brainstems together.
• Figure 14–10 The Thalamus revised (thalamic nuclei label now color-coded to clarify brain regions that receive thalamic input; medial geniculate body and lateral geniculate body replace medial geniculate nucleus and lateral geniculate nucleus)
• Figure 14–18 Origins of the Cranial Nerves revised (new brain cadaver photograph; cranial nerve labels boxed together)
• Questions added to Figures 14–1, 14–3, 14–9, 14–13, 14–15, 14–22, and 14–26.

Chapter 15: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System

Figure 15–1 An Overview of Events Occurring Along with the Sensory and Motor Pathways revised
Figure 15–2 Receptors and Receptive Fields revised (different colors for each receptive field and added Epidermis and Free nerve endings labels)
Figure 15–3 Tonic and Phasic Sensory Receptors revised (new background colors for graphs)
Figure 15–4 Tactile Receptors in the Skin revised (added myelin sheath to an afferent nerve fiber in part c; part d, bulbous corpuscle replaces Ruffini corpuscle; part e, lamellar [pacinian] corpuscle replaces lamellated [pacinian] corpuscle)
NEW Figure 15–6 Locations and Functions of Chemoreceptors
Figure 15–7 Sensory Pathways and Ascending Tracts in the Spinal Cord revised (gracile fasciculus replaces fasciculus gracilis, cuneate fasciculus replaces fasciculus cuneate)
Spotlight Figure 15–8 Somatic Sensory Pathways revised (introduced “somatotopy” in Sensory Homunculus boxed text)
Questions added to Figures 15–1, 15–2, 15–4, 15–7, and 15–10.

Chapter 16: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-Order Functions

NEW Clinical Case: Remember Me?
NEW Spotlight Figure 16–2 The Autonomic Nervous System (incorporates old Figures 16–4 and 16–6. added Pons and Medulla oblongata labels on the art)
A new summary Section 16–6 called “The differences in the organization of sympathetic and parasympathetic structures leads to widespread sympathetic effects and specific parasympathetic effects” has been created.
The sections on memory, states of consciousness, and behavior have been combined into Section 16–9.
Figure 16–11 The Reticular Activating System (RAS) revised (CN II and CN VIII replace N II and N VIII, respectively)
NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 16–12 Integration of the NERVOUS system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
Questions added to Figures 16–1, 16–3, 16–4, 16–7, and 16–11.

Chapter 17: The Special Senses

Figure 17–1 The Olfactory Organs revised (I replaces N I)
Spotlight Figure 17–2 Olfaction and Gustation revised (added part a and b labels)
Figure 17–3 Papillae, Taste Buds, and Gustatory Receptor Cells revised (new figure title; added Midline groove label to part a)
Figure 17–4 External Features and Accessory Structures of the Eye revised (lateral angle replaces lateral canthus, medial angle replaces medial canthus, bulbar conjunctiva replaces ocular conjunctiva, eyelid replaces palpebrae)
Figure 17–5 The Sectional Anatomy of the Eye revised (corneoscleral junction replaces corneal limbus)
Figure 17–6 The Pupillary Muscles revised (dilator pupillary replaces pupillary dilator muscles; sphincter pupillary replaces pupillary constrictor)
Figure 17–7 The Organization of the Retina revised (pigmented layer of retina replaces pigmented part of retina; switched parts b and c to parallel new sequence in the text)
A new overview section, Section 17–4, called “The focusing of light on the retina leads to the formation of a visual image” has been created in the text.
Figure 17–10 Factors Affecting Focal Distance revised (clarified text within the figure; added Focal point label to all the art)
Figure 17–11 Accommodation revised (fovea centralis replaces fovea)
Figure 17–14 Structure of Rods, Cones, and the Rhodopsin Molecule revised (pigmented epithelium replaces pigment epithelium)
Figure 17–23 The Internal Ear revised (ampullary crest replaces crista ampullary; clarified position of the membranous labyrinth in part an art)
Figure 17–24 The Semicircular Ducts revised (ampullary cupula replaces cupula; vestibular nerve replaces vestibular branch in part a)
Figure 17–26 Pathways for Equilibrium Sensations revised (cochlear nerve replaces cochlear branch)
Figure 17–30 Sound and Hearing revised (added new art to illustrate step 4)
Figure 17–32 Pathways for Auditory Sensations revised (auditory replaces sound and acoustic in steps 2 and 5)
Questions added to Figures 17–4, 17–7, 17–21, and 17–28.

Chapter 18: The Endocrine System

Figure 18–1 Organ and Tissues of the Endocrine System revised (clarified hormones in Gonads box)
Table 18–1 Mechanisms of Intercellular Communication revised (added autocrine communication)
Spotlight Figure 18–3 G Proteins and Second Messengers revised (added positive feedback involving protein kinase C; clarified calcium ion sources for binding with calmodulin)
Figure 18–6 Three Mechanisms of Hypothalamic Control over Endocrine Function revised (removed numbers and added color coding to enhance links between hypothalamic structures and functions)
Figure 18–7 The Hypophyseal Portal System and the Blood Supply to the Pituitary Gland revised (regulatory hormones replaces regulatory factors)
Figure 18–8 Feedback Control of Endocrine Secretion revised (added two banners to separate part a from parts b and c; incorporated old part d with a new color-coded table within part a)
Figure 18–9 Pituitary Hormones and Their Targets revised (added color codes to correlate with Figure 18–6)
Figure 18–11 Synthesis and Regulation of Thyroid Hormones (added step art to part a that describes the synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones; added new homeostasis design to part b that illustrates the regulation of thyroid secretion)
Figure 18–12 Anatomy of the Parathyroid Glands revised (principal cells replaces chief cells)
Figure 18–13 Homeostatic Regulation of the Blood Calcium Ion Concentration revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 18–14 The Adrenal Gland and Adrenal Hormones revised (added new micrograph and new design for part c)
Figure 18–17 Homeostatic Regulation of the Blood Glucose Concentration revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 18–19 Endocrine Functions of the Kidneys revised (new homeostasis design in part b)
NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 18–21 Integration of The ENDOCRINE system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
Questions added to Figures 18–6, 18–8, 18–9, 18–14, and 18–17.

Chapter 19: Blood

NEW Clinical Case: Crisis in the Blood
Section 19–1 now covers the main functions and characteristics of blood, as well as an introduction to both plasma and formed elements (combined with the old Section 19–2).
Figure 19–4 Stages of RBC Maturation: Erythropoiesis and Figure 19–5 Recycling of Red Blood Cell Components sequence changed because of chapter reorganization.
Figure 19–6 Blood Types and Cross-Reactions revised (corrected shapes of anti-A and anti-B antibodies)
Figure 19–7 Blood Type Testing revised (anti-Rh replaces anti-D; added “clumping” or “no clumping” under test results for clarification)
Figure 19–11 The Phases of Hemostasis (Vascular, Platelet, and Coagulation) and Clot Retraction revised (clotting factors replaces platelet factors in step 2; new blood clot SEM)
Table 19–2 Differences in Blood Group Distribution revised
Questions added to Figures 19–3, 19–5, 19–6, and 19–10.

Chapter 20: The Heart

Figure 20–1 An Overview of the Cardiovascular System revised (new art and boxed labels)
Figure 20–2 The Location of the Heart in the Thoracic Cavity revised (parietal layer of serous pericardium replaces parietal pericardium)
Figure 20–4 The Heart Wall revised (visceral layer of serous pericardium replaces epicardium [visceral pericardium])
Figure 20–5 The Sectional Anatomy of the Heart revised (tricuspid valve replaces right AV [tricuspid] valve; mitral valve replaces left AV [mitral] valve)
Figure 20–7 Valves of the Heart and Blood Flow revised (red arrows replace black arrows in part a; black arrows deleted in part b)
Figure 20–10 The Conducting System of the Heart and the Pacemaker Potential revised (pacemaker potential replaces prepotential)
Figure 20–11 Impulse Conduction through the Heart and Accompanying ECG Tracings revised (added ECG tracings next to the step art)
Figure 20–12 An Electrocardiogram (ECG) revised (QRS complex replaces QRS interval in part b)
Figure 20–14 Cardiac Contractile Cells revised (cardiac contractile cells replace cardiac muscle cells; former Figure 20–5 moved because of chapter reorganization to provide structural information right before functional information)
Figure 20–15 Action Potentials in Cardiac Contractile Cells and Skeletal Muscle Fibers revised (ventricular contractile cell replaces ventricular muscle cell)
Figure 20–16 Phases of the Cardiac Cycle revised (moved labels for Atrial systole, Atrial diastole, Ventricular systole, and Ventricular diastole to the perimeter of art for increased correlation)
Figure 20–17 Pressure and Volume Relationships in the Cardiac Cycle revised (modified colors of banners to match the perimeter art of Figure 20–16 Phases of the Cardiac Cycle for increased correlation)
Figure 20–19 Factors Affecting Cardiac Output revised (added EDV and ESV)
Figure 20–23 Factors Affecting Stroke Volume revised (added key)
Figure 20–24 A Summary of the Factors Affecting Cardiac Output revised (deleted arrow from Preload to End-systolic volume box)
Table 20–1 Structural and Functional Differences between Cardiac Contractile Cells and Skeletal Muscle Fibers revised (cardiac contractile cells replaces cardiac muscle cells)
Questions added to Figures 20–1, 20–5, 20–11, 20–15, 20–21, and 20–24.

Chapter 21: Blood Vessels and Circulation

Figure 21–2 Histological Structures of Blood Vessels revised (added luminal diameters for all vessels)
Figure 21–4 The Organization of a Capillary Bed revised (deleted metarterioles)
Figure 21–8 Relationships among Vessel Luminal Diameter, Cross-Sectional Area, Blood Pressure, and Blood Velocity within the Systemic Circuit revised (vessel luminal diameter replaces vessel diameter in part a; vessel lumens replaces vessels in part b)
Figure 21–11 Forces Acting across Capillary Walls revised (added tissue cells background)
The discussion of vasomotion has been moved from Section 21–1 to Section 21–3, to cover this process with other vessels physiology.
Figure 21–12 Short-Term and Long-Term Cardiovascular Responses revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 21–13 Baroreceptor Reflexes of the Carotid and Aortic Sinuses revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 21–14 The Chemoreceptor Reflexes revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 21–15 The Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 21–16 Cardiovascular Responses to Blood Loss revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 21–24 Arteries Supplying the Abdominopelvic Organs revised
Figure 21–27 Major Veins of the Head, Neck, and Brain revised (added confluence of sinuses to parts a, b, and c)
Figure 21–28 The Venous Drainage of the Abdomen and Chest revised (median sacral replaces medial sacral; Hemi-azygos replaces hemiazygos)
Figure 21–29 Flowchart of Circulation to the Superior and Inferior Venae Cavae revised
Figure 21–31 The Hepatic Portal System revised
NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 21–34 Integration of The CARDIOVASCULAR system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
Questions added to Figures 21–2, 21–7, 21–12, 21–15, 21–21, and 21–29.

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The coverage of the lymphatic system is now Section 22–1.
Figure 22–1 The Components of the Lymphatic System revised (Other Lymphoid Tissues and Organs heading replaces Lymphoid Tissues and Organs heading because lymph nodes are organs)
Figure 22–5 Lymphoid Nodules moved (formerly Figure 22–7, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–6 The Structure of a Lymph Node revised and moved (cortex replaces outer cortex; paracortex replaces deep cortex; formerly Figure 22–8, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–7 The Thymus moved (formerly Figure 22–9, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–8 The Spleen moved (formerly Figure 22–10, moved due to chapter reorganization)
The original Section 22–1 has been moved to become Section 22–2 and adapted so that it is now titled “Lymphocytes are important to the innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) defenses that protect the body.”
We have broadened the definition of the term “immune response” from a “defense against specific antigens” to “the body’s reaction to infectious agents and abnormal substances.”
Figure 22–9 The Origin and Distribution of Lymphocytes revised and moved (hemocytoblasts replaces multipotent hemopoietic stem cell; formerly Figure 22–10, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–10 Innate Defenses revised
Figure 22–11 How Natural Killer Cells Kill Cellular Targets moved (formerly Figure 22–12, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–12 Interferons revised
NEW Figure 22–13 Pathways of Complement Activation revised (added the Lectin Pathway)
Figure 22–14 Inflammation and the Steps in Tissue Repair moved (formerly Figure 22–15, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–15 Classes of Lymphocytes revised and moved (regulatory T cells replace suppressor T cells; formerly Figure 22–5, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–16 An Overview of Adaptive Immunity revised and moved (former title: An Overview of the Immune Response; formerly Figure 22–17, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–17 Forms of Immunity revised and moved (acquired replaces induced; formerly Figure 22–16, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–18 Antigens and MHC Proteins revised
Spotlight Figure 22–21 Cytokines of the Immune System revised and moved (formerly Figure 22–28, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–22 A Summary of the Pathways of T Cell Activation revised and moved (regulatory T cells replace suppressor T cells; formerly Figure 22–21, moved due to text reorganization)
Figure 22–23 The Sensitization and Activation of B Cells moved (formerly Figure 22–22, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–24 Antibody Structure and Function moved (formerly
• Figure 22–23, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 22–27 An Integrated Summary of the Immune Response revised and moved (regulatory T cells replace suppressor T cells; formerly Figure 22–26, moved due to chapter reorganization
NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 22–30 Integration of The LYMPHATIC system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
Questions added to Figures 22–3, 22–8, 22–12, 22–17, 22–25, and 22–26.

Chapter 23: The Respiratory System

NEW Clinical Case: No Rest for the Weary
Figure 23–3 The Structures of the Upper Respiratory System revised (epithelial surface replaces superficial view in the micrograph of part a)
Figure 23–3 The Structures of the Upper Respiratory System revised (pharyngeal opening of auditory tube replaces nasopharyngeal meatus)
Original Sections 23–3 and 23–4 have been combined into a new Section 23–3 on the conducting portion of the lower respiratory system. This section now includes coverage of the bronchial tree.
Figure 23–6 The Anatomy of the Trachea revised (cross-sectional diagram of trachea and esophagus replaces micrograph to better highlight trachealis)
NEW Section 23–4 has been added titled “The respiratory portion of the lower respiratory system is where gas exchange occurs.” This covers the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli, and the blood air barrier.
Figure 23–7 The Bronchi, Lobules, and Alveoli of the Lung revised and moved (new art in part c; formerly Figure 23–9, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 23–8 Alveolar Organization revised and moved (pneumocyte type I and type II replaces type I and type II pneumocyte; blood air barrier replaces respiratory membrane; formerly Figure 23–10, moved due to chapter reorganization
Figure 23–9 The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs revised and moved (formerly Figure 23–7, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 23–10 The Relationship between the Lungs and Heart revised (labeled Anterior border in part b; formerly Figure 23–8, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 23–11 An Overview of the Key Steps in Respiration revised
NEW Figure 23–13 Primary and Accessory Respiratory Muscles
NEW Spotlight Figure 23–14 Pulmonary Ventilation
Figure 23–15 Pressure and Volume Changes during Inhalation and Exhalation revised and moved (outlined boxes with the same color as respective line graphs for better correlation; formerly
• Figure 23–14, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 23–16 Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities revised
Figure 23–18 An Overview of Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration revised (added new icon art)
Figure 23–23 A Summary of the Primary Gas Transport Mechanisms revised (added oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure values)
Spotlight Figure 23–25 Control of Respiration revised
Figure 23–26 The Chemoreceptor Response to Changes in PCO2 revised (new homeostasis design)
NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 23–28 Integration of The RESPIRATORY system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
Questions added to Figures 23–2, 23–7, 23–8, 23–13, 23–16, 23–20, and 23–26.

Chapter 24: The Digestive System

Figure 24–1 Component of the Digestive System revised (mechanical digestion replaces mechanical processing)
Figure 24–2 The Mesenteries revised (added Visceral peritoneum label to part d)
Figure 24–3 Histological Organization of the Digestive Tract revised (muscular layer replaces muscularis externa; intestinal glands replaces mucosal glands; submucosal neural plexus replaces submucosal plexus)
Figure 24–4 Peristalsis revised (Initial State now step 1)
Figure 24–6 Anatomy of the Oral Cavity revised (oral vestibule replaces vestibule; frenulum of tongue replaces lingual frenulum)
Figure 24–7 The Teeth moved (formerly Figure 24–8, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 24–8 Deciduous and Permanent Dentitions revised (new title; deciduous replaces primary; permanent replaces secondary; canine replaces cuspid; formerly Figure 24–9, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 24–9 Anatomy of the Salivary Glands moved (formerly Figure 24–7, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Section 24–3, titled “The pharynx and esophagus are passageways that transport the food bolus from the oral cavity to the stomach,” now combines coverage of the pharynx, esophagus, and deglutition.
Figure 24–12 Gross Anatomy of the Stomach revised (new title; pyloric part replaces pylorus)
Figure 24–14 The Secretion of Hydrochloric Acid Ions revised (new title; anion countertransport mechanism replaces countertransport mechanism; added Dissociation label for clarification)
Spotlight Figure 24–15 The Regulation of Gastric Activity revised (clarified Key in steps 1 and 2)
The new Section 24–5 called “Accessory digestive organs, such as the pancreas and liver, produce secretions that aid in chemical digestion” now covers these accessory organs all in one place.
Figure 24–16 Anatomy of the Pancreas moved (formerly Figure 24–18, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 24–17 Gross Anatomy of the Liver revised and moved (new title; added Peritoneal cavity label to part a; formerly Figure 24–19, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 24–18 Histology of the Liver revised and moved (portal triad replaces portal area; reoriented micrograph to better correlate with art in part b; renamed portal triad structures to the interlobular bile duct, interlobular vein, and interlobular artery; stellate macrophage replaces Kupffer cells; formerly Figure 24–20, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 24–19 The Anatomy and Physiology of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts revised (bile duct replaces common bile duct; formerly Figure 24–21, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 24–20 Gross Anatomy and Segments of the Intestine moved (new title; formerly Figure 24–16, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 24–21 Histology of the Intestinal Wall revised (new title; added new part c showing Paneth cells; intestinal gland replaces
intestinal crypt; formerly Figure 24–17, moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 24–22 The Secretion and Effects of Major Duodenal Hormones revised (new title; clarified secretin’s primary effect)
Figure 24–23 The Secretion and Effects of Major Digestive Tract Hormones revised (new title; added new pancreas art)
Figure 24–25 Histology of the Colon revised (new title; added two more teniae coli to the icon art to show general positions of all three teniae coli)
Added coverage of the microbiome under Section 24–7 on the large intestine.
NEW Figure 24–26 The Defecation Reflex
Spotlight Figure 24–27 The Chemical Events of Digestion revised
Figure 24–27 Digestive Secretion and Water Reabsorption in the Digestive Tract revised (added new art next to Dietary Input box)
NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 23–28 Integration of the DIGESTIVE system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
Questions added to Figures 24–4, 24–9, 24–12, 24–23, and 24–26.

Chapter 25: Metabolism, Nutrition, and Energetics (title changed to include nutrition)

NEW Figure 25–1 Metabolism of Organic Nutrients and Nutrient Pools
We now cover oxidation-reduction reactions in Section 25–1.
Figure 25–2 Glycolysis moved (formerly Figure 25–3)
Figure 25–3 The Citric Acid Cycle revised and moved (electron transport chain replaces electron transport system; formerly Figure 25–4)
NEW Spotlight Figure 25–4 The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Formation
Figure 25–5 A Summary of the Energy Yield of Glycolysis and Aerobic Metabolism revised (total ATP yield from a glucose molecule based on new values of ATP yield per NADH [2.5 ATP vs. previous 3 ATP] and FADH2 [1.5 ATP vs. previous 2 ATP]).
Figure 25–6 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis revised (added NADH S NAD to show pyruvate is reduced to form lactate when oxygen is lacking)
Figure 25–7 Lipolysis and Beta-Oxidation revised (new title; lowered total ATP yield)
Figure 25–8 Lipid Transport and Use revised (formerly Figure 25–9)
Spotlight Figure 25–10 Absorptive and the Postabsorptive States revised (membrane receptor replaces carrier protein; formerly Spotlight Figure 25–11)
Figure 25–11 MyPlate, MyWins revised (new title)
Questions added to Figures 25–2, 25–5, 25–7, 25–8, and 25–14.

Chapter 26: The Urinary System

Figure 26–6 The Anatomy of a Representative Nephron and the Collecting System revised (new figure title; removed functional anatomy descriptions; descending thin limb replaces thin descending limb in all relevant figures)
Figure 26–7 The Functional Anatomy of a Representative Nephron and the Collecting System revised (added Extraglomerular mesangial cells label in part a to clarify their distinction from juxtaglomerular cells; intraglomerular mesangial cell replaces mesangial cell)
Figure 26–8 The Locations and Structures of Cortical and Juxtamedullary Nephrons moved (formerly Figure 26–7, renumbered because of chapter reorganization)
Figure 26–9 An Overview of Urine Formation revised (added functional anatomy descriptions from former Figure 26–6)
Figure 26–11 The Response to a Reduction in the GFR revised (new homeostasis design)
There is a new section called Principles of Reabsorption and Secretion at the beginning of Section 26–5 to provide an overview of this process before we get into its details.
Figure 26–12 Transport Activities at the PCT revised (corrected color of cotransport mechanism symbol in the art)
A new Section 26–6 called “Countercurrent multiplication allows the kidneys to regulate the volume and concentration of urine” has been added to emphasize this content, especially the role of the medullary osmotic gradient. This also includes a more complete kidney function testing section.
Spotlight Figure 26–16 Summary of Renal Function revised (added new step 8 discussing papillary duct permeability to urea and art showing urea transporter)
Figure 26–18 Organs for Conducting and Storing Urine revised (deleted “[in urogenital diaphragm]” in part b)
NEW Figure 26–20 The Control of Urination
NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 26–21 Integration of The URINARY system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
Questions added to Figures 26–5, 26–6, 26–11, 26–14, and 26–18.

Chapter 27: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Figure 27–5 Homeostatic Regulation of Sodium-Ion Concentration in Body Fluids revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 27–6 Integration of Fluid Volume Regulation and Sodium-Ion Concentration in Body Fluids revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 27–7 Major Factors Involved in Disturbances of Potassium Ion Balance revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 27–8 Three Classes of Acids Found in the Body revised (metabolic acids replaces organic acids)
Figure 27–13 pH Regulation of Tubular Fluid by Kidney Tubule Cells revised (incorporated buffer system type next to relevant chemical reactions for better art–text integration)
Figure 27–15 Homeostatic Regulation of Acid-Base Balance revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 27–16 Responses to Metabolic Acidosis revised (new homeostasis design)
Figure 27–17 Responses to Metabolic Alkalosis revised (new homeostasis design)
Questions added to Figures 27–2, 27–7, 27–10, 27–14, and 27–16.

Chapter 28: The Reproductive System

NEW Clinical Case: And Baby Makes Three?
Section 28–2, retitled “The structures of the male reproductive the system consist of the testes and scrotum, duct system, accessory glands, and penis,” is now focused on male reproductive anatomy.
FAP10 Figure 28–2 The Descent of the Testes deleted
Figure 28–4 Anatomy of the Seminiferous Tubules revised (includes only parts a and b of former Figure 28–5)
Figure 28–5 Anatomy of the Epididymis revised (former Figure 28–9 moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 28–6 Anatomy of the Ductus Deferens and Accessory Glands revised and reorganized (former Figure 28–10 moved due
to chapter reorganization)
Figure 28–7 Anatomy of the Penis revised and reorganized (former Figure 28–11 moved due to chapter reorganization; new erectile tissue box)
There is now a Section 28–3 called “Spermatogenesis occurs in the testes, and hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and testes control male reproductive functions” that covers male reproductive physiology.
Section 28–3 now starts with an Overview of Mitosis and Meiosis.
NEW Figure 28–8 A Comparison of Chromosomes in Mitosis and Meiosis
Figure 28–9 The Process of Spermatogenesis revised (former Figure 28–7 moved due to chapter reorganization; sperm replaces spermatozoa)
Figure 28–10 Spermatogenesis in a Seminiferous Tubule revised (includes only parts c and d of former Figure 28–5; moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 28–11 The Process of Spermiogenesis and Anatomy of a Sperm revised (former Figure 28–8 moved due to chapter reorganization; sperm replaces spermatozoa)
The reworked Section 28–4 is now titled “The structures of the female reproductive system consist of the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia” and focuses on presenting the female reproductive anatomy.
Figure 28–15 Anatomy of the Uterine Tubes revised (former Figure 28–17 moved due to chapter reorganization; new epithelial surface SEM)
Figure 28–19 Anatomy of the Female External Genitalia revised (former Figure 28–22 moved due to chapter reorganization)
The reworked Section 28–5 titled “Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries, and hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries control female reproductive functions” presents female reproductive physiology. This section now gathers information on oogenesis, the ovarian cycle, and the uterine cycle, as well as their coordination.
Figure 28–21 The Process of Oogenesis revised (new title; former Figure 28–15 moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 28–22 Follicle Development and the Ovarian Cycle revised (former Figure 28–16 moved due to chapter reorganization; new ovary art)
Figure 28–23 A Comparison of the Structure of the Endometrium during the Phases of the Uterine Cycle revised (new title; former
Figure 28–20 moved due to chapter reorganization)
Spotlight Figure 28–24 Hormonal Regulation of Female Reproduction revised (text in Follicle Phase of the Ovarian Cycle box changed to reflect that one tertiary follicle from a group becomes dominant; Tertiary ovarian follicle development label replaces Follicle development label; temperature ranges changed for both Celsius and Fahrenheit scales, and Menses label changed to Menstrual Phase)
Under Section 28–6, there are new discussions of contraception and infertility, and sexually transmitted diseases.
Under Section 28–7, there is a new discussion of the development of internal reproductive organs, with a new Figure 28–26 The Development of Male and Female Internal Reproductive Organs.
NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 28–27 Integration of The REPRODUCTIVE system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
Questions added to Figures 28–7, 28–9, 28–11, 28–22, 28–23, and 28–25.

Chapter 29: Development and Inheritance

Figure 29–1 Fertilization revised (changed some titles and text in step art; clarified when DNA synthesis occurs)
Figure 29–3 Stages in Implantation revised (cytotrophoblast replaces cellular trophoblast; syncytiotrophoblast replaces syncytial trophoblast)
Figure 29–4 The Inner Cell Mass and Gastrulation revised (changed Gastrulation from Day 12 to Day 15)
Spotlight Figure 29–5 Extra-Embryonic Membranes and Placenta Formation revised (added cervical plug to Week 10/step 5 art)
Figure 29–6 Anatomy of the Placenta after the First Trimester revised (replaced the first sentence of part a text)
Figure 29–7 The First 12 Weeks of Development revised (new art at 3 weeks of development replaces Week 2 SEM)
Section 29–5, now called “During the second and third trimesters, fetal development primarily involves growth and organ function,” focuses on the fetal development during this period.
Section 29–6, called “During gestation, maternal organ systems support the developing fetus; the reproductive system, in particular, undergoes structural and functional changes” now presents the maternal changes, including hormonal effects.
Figure 29–12 The Milk Ejection Reflex revised (new title)
Figure 29–17 Inheritance of an X-Linked Trait revised (former Figure 29–18 moved due to chapter reorganization)
Figure 29–18 Crossing Over and Recombination revised (clarified text in part b; former Figure 29–17 moved due to chapter reorganization)
Questions added to Figures 29–2, 29–4, 29–10, 29–14, and 29–15.


NEW Table 3 Four Common Methods of Reporting Gas Pressure
NEW Table 4 Turnover Times of Organic Components of Four Cell Types

Table of Contents:

1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
An Introduction to Studying the Human Body
1-1 To make the most of your learning, read the text and view the art together
Getting to Know Your Textbook
Anatomy of a Chapter
1-2 Anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) are closely integrated
1-3 Levels of organization progress from chemicals to a complete organism
1-4 Medical terminology is important to understanding anatomy and physiology
1-5 Anatomical terms describe body regions, anatomical positions and directions, and body sections
Surface Anatomy
Sectional Anatomy
1-6 Body cavities of the trunk protect internal organs and allow them to change shape
The Thoracic Cavity
The Abdominopelvic Cavity
1-7 Homeostasis, the state of internal balance, is continuously regulated
Mechanisms of Homeostatic Regulation
An Overview of the Process of Homeostatic Regulation
1-8 Negative feedback opposes variations from normal, whereas positive feedback enhances them
The Role of Negative Feedback in Homeostasis
The Role of Positive Feedback in Homeostasis
Systems Integration, Equilibrium, and Homeostasis
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos Figure 1–10 Positive Feedback: Blood Clotting.
Spotlights Levels of Organization
Clinical Case Using A&P to Save a Life
Clinical Notes
Habeas Corpus (“You Shall Have the Body”)
The Sounds of the Body
Diagnostic Imaging Techniques
2 The Chemical Level of Organization
An Introduction to the Chemical Level of Organization
2-1 Atoms are the basic particles of matter
Atomic Structure
Elements and Isotopes
Atomic Weights
Electrons and Energy Levels
2-2 Chemical bonds are forces formed by interactions between atoms
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
States of Matter
2-3 Decomposition, synthesis, and exchange reactions are important types of chemical reactions in physiology
Basic Energy Concepts
Types of Chemical Reactions
2-4 Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the energy needed to start them
2-5 Inorganic compounds lack carbon, and organic compounds contain carbon
2-6 Physiological systems depend on water
The Properties of Aqueous Solutions
Colloids and Suspensions
2-7 Body fluid pH is vital for homeostasis
2-8 Acids, bases, and salts have important physiological roles
Acids and Bases
Buffers and pH Control
2-9 Living things contain organic compounds made up of monomers, polymers, and functional groups
2-10 Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
2-11 Lipids often contain a carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of 1:2
Fatty Acids
Phospholipids and Glycolipids
2-12 Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and are formed from amino acids
Protein Structure
Protein Shape
Enzyme Function
Glycoproteins and Proteoglycans
2-13 DNA and RNA are nucleic acids
Structure of Nucleic Acids
Comparison of RNA and DNA
2-14 ATP is a high-energy compound used by cells
Chapter Review
Chemical Notation
Clinical Case
What Is Wrong with My Baby?
Clinical Notes
Radiation Sickness
Too Sweet on Sugar?
3 The Cellular Level of Organization
An Introduction to Cells
3-1 The plasma membrane separates the cell from its surrounding environment and performs various functions
Membrane Lipids
Membrane Proteins
Membrane Carbohydrates
3-2 Organelles within the cytoplasm perform particular functions
The Cytosol
Nonmembranous Organelles
Membranous Organelles
3-3 The nucleus contains DNA and enzymes essential for controlling cellular activities
Structure of the Nucleus
Information Storage in the Nucleus
3-4 DNA controls protein synthesis, cell structure, and cell function
Regulation of Transcription by Gene Activation
Transcription of DNA into mRNA
Translation from mRNA into a Polypeptide
How DNA Controls Cell Structure and Function
3-5 Diffusion is a passive transport mechanism that assists membrane passage of solutes and
Osmosis: Diffusion of Water across Selectively Permeable Membranes
3-6 Carrier-mediated and vesicular transport assist membrane passage of specific substances
Carrier-Mediated Transport
Vesicular Transport
3-7 The membrane potential of cell results from the unequal distribution of positive and negative charges across the plasma membrane
3-8 Stages of the cell life cycle include interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
The Cell Life Cycle
The Mitotic Rate and Energy Use
3-9 Several factors regulate the cell life cycle
3-10 Abnormal cell growth and division characterize tumors and cancers
3-11 Cellular differentiation is cellular specialization as a result of gene activation or repression
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 3–12 mRNA Transcription.
Figure 3–13 The Process of Translation.
Anatomy of a Model Cell
Protein Synthesis, Processing, and Packaging
Overview of Membrane Transport
Stages of a Cell’s Life Cycle
DNA Replication
Clinical Case
The Beat Must Go On!
Clinical Notes
Lysosomal Storage Diseases
Free Radicals
DNA Fingerprinting
Drugs and the Plasma Membrane
Telomerase, Aging, and Cancer
Breakthroughs with Stem Cells
4 The Tissue Level of Organization
An Introduction to the Tissue Level of Organization
4-1 The four tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
4-2 Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines internal surfaces, and serves other essential functions
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
Specializations of Epithelial Cells
Maintaining the Integrity of Epithelia
4-3 Cell shape and number of layers determine the classification of epithelia
Classification of Epithelial
Glandular Epithelia
4-4 Connective tissue has varied roles in the body that reflect the physical properties of its three main types
4-5 Connective tissue proper includes loose connective tissues that fill internal spaces and dense connective tissues that contribute to the internal framework of the body
Structure of Connective Tissue Proper
Loose Connective Tissues
Dense Connective Tissues
Fasciae: Layers of Connective Tissue Proper
4-6 Blood and lymph are fluid connective tissues that transport cells and dissolved materials
4-7 The supporting connective tissues cartilage and bone provide a strong framework
4-8 Tissue membranes made from epithelial and connective tissue make up four types of physical barriers
Mucous Membranes
Serous Membranes
The Cutaneous Membrane
Synovial Membranes
4-9 The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Smooth Muscle Tissue
4-10 Nervous tissue responds to stimuli and propagates electrical impulses throughout the body
4-11 The response to tissue injury involves inflammation and regeneration
4-12 With advancing age, tissue regeneration decreases, and cancer rates increase
Aging and Tissue Structure
Aging and Cancer Incidence
Chapter Review
Inflammation and Regeneration
Clinical Case
The Rubber Girl
Clinical Notes
Exfoliative Cytology
Marfan Syndrome

5 The Integumentary System
An Introduction to the Integumentary System
5-1 The epidermis is a protective covering composed of layers with various functions
Cells of the Epidermis: Keratinocytes
Layers of the Epidermis
Epidermal Growth Factor
5-2 The dermis is the tissue layer that supports the epidermis
Layers of the Dermis
Dermal Strength and Elasticity
Tension Lines
The Dermal Blood Supply
Innervation of the Skin
5-3 The subcutaneous layer connects the dermis to underlying tissues
5-4 Epidermal pigmentation and dermal circulation influence skin color
The Role of Epidermal Pigmentation
The Role of Dermal Circulation: Hemoglobin
Disease-Related Changes in Skin Color
5-5 Sunlight causes epidermal cells to convert an asteroid into vitamin D3
5-6 Hair is made of keratinized dead cells pushed to the skin surface where it has protecting and insulating roles
Hair and Hair Follicle Structure
Hair Production
The Hair Growth Cycle
Types of Hairs
Hair Color
5-7 Sebaceous glands and sweat glands are exocrine glands found in the skin
Sebaceous Glands
Sweat Glands
Other Integumentary Glands
Control of Glandular Secretions and Thermoregulation
5-8 Nails are keratinized epidermal cells that protect the tips of fingers and toes
5-9 After an injury, the integument is repaired in several phases
5-10 Effects of aging on the skin include thinning, wrinkling, and reduced melanocyte activity
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the INTEGUMENTARY system with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
The Epidermis
Clinical Case
He Has Fish Skin!
Clinical Notes
Nips, Tucks, and Shots
Skin Cancer
Decubitus Ulcers
Your Skin, A Mirror of Your Health
Burns and Grafts
6 Bones and Bone Structure
An Introduction to Bones and Bone Tissue
6-1 The skeletal system has several major functions
6-2 Bones are classified according to shape and structure and they have a variety of bone
Bone Shapes
Bone Markings
Bone Structure
6-3 Bone is composed of matrix and several types of cells: osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
Bone Matrix
Bone Cells
6-4 Compact bone contains parallel osteons, and spongy bone contains trabeculae
Compact Bone Structure
Spongy Bone Structure
Coordinated Functions of Compact and Spongy Bone
Surface Coverings of Bone
6-5 Bones form through ossification and enlarge through interstitial and appositional growth
Endochondral Ossification
Intramembranous Ossification
Blood and Nerve Supplies to Bone
6-6 Bone growth and development depend on the bone remodeling, which is a balance between bone formation and bone resorption
6-7 Exercise, nutrition, and hormones affect bone development and the skeletal system
The Effects of Exercise on Bone
Nutritional and Hormonal Effects on Bone
6-8 Calcium plays a critical role in bone physiology
The Skeleton as a Calcium Reserve
Hormones and Calcium Ion Balance
6-9 A fracture is a crack or break in a bone
6-10 Osteopenia has widespread effects on aging bones
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 6-11 Endochondral Ossification
Figure 6–16 Factors That Increase the Blood Calcium Ion Level.
Endochondral Ossification
Types of Fractures and Steps in Repair
Clinical Case
A Case of Child Abuse?
Clinical Notes
Abnormal Bone Development
7 The Axial Skeleton
An Introduction to the Divisions of the Skeleton
7-1 The 80 bones of the head and trunk make up the axial skeleton
7-2 The skull’s 8 cranial bones protect the brain, and its 14 facial bones from the mouth, nose, and orbits
Cranial, Facial, and Associated Bones
Sinuses, Foramina, and Fissures
7-3 Each orbital complex contains and protects an eye, and the nasal complex encloses the nasal cavities
The Orbital Complexes
The Nasal Complex
7-4 Fontanelles are non-ossified fibrous areas between cranial bones that ease birth and allow for rapid brain growth in infants and children
7-5 The vertebral column has four flexible and supportive spinal curves
7-6 The five vertebral regions—cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal—each has characteristic vertebrae
Vertebral Anatomy
Characteristics of Regional Vertebrae
7-7 The thoracic cage protects organs in the chest and provides sites for muscle attachment
The Ribs
The Sternum
Chapter Review
Sectional Anatomy of the Skull
Clinical Case
Knocked Out
Clinical Notes
Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome
Kyphosis, Lordosis, and Scoliosis
8 The Appendicular Skeleton
An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton
8-1 The pectoral (shoulder) girdles attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
The Clavicles
The Scapulae
8-2 The bones of the upper limbs are adapted for free movement
Arm Bone: The Humerus
Bones of the Forearm
Bones of the Wrist and Hand
8-3 The pelvic girdle (hips) attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton
The Pelvic Girdle (Hip Bones)
The Pelvis (Pelvic Girdle, Sacrum, and Coccyx)
8-4 The bones of the lower limbs are adapted for movement and support
The Femur (Thighbone)
The Patella (Kneecap)
Bones of the Leg
Bones of the Ankle and Foot
8-5 Differences in sex and age account for individual skeletal variation
Chapter Review
Sex Differences in the Human Skeleton
Clinical Case
Clinical Notes
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Hip Fracture
Shin Splints
Stress Fractures
Club Foot
9 Joints
An Introduction to Joints
9-1 Joints are categorized according to their structure or range of motion
9-2 Diarthroses: Synovial joints contain synovial fluid and are surrounded by a joint capsule and stabilizing accessory structures
Articular Cartilage
Synovial Fluid
Accessory Structures
Factors That Stabilize Synovial Joints
9-3 Diarthroses: The different types of synovial joints allow a wide range of skeletal movements
Types of Movements at Synovial Joints
Classification of Synovial Joints
9-4 Intervertebral joints contain intervertebral discs and ligaments that allow for vertebral movements
Structure of Intervertebral Joints
Vertebral Movements
9-5 The elbow and knee are both hinge joints
The Elbow Joint
The Knee Joint
9-6 The shoulder and hip are both ball-and-socket joints
The Shoulder Joint
The Hip Joint
9-7 With advancing age, arthritis, and other degenerative changes often impair joint mobility
9-8 The skeletal system supports and stores energy and minerals for other body systems
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the SKELETAL system with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
Joint Movement
Clinical Case
What’s the Matter with the Birthday Girl?
Clinical Notes
Bursitis and Bunions
Damage to Intervertebral Discs
Knee Injuries
10 Muscle Tissue
An Introduction to Muscle Tissue
10-1 The primary function of muscle tissue is to produce movement
Common Properties of Muscle Tissue
Functions of Skeletal Muscle
10-2 Skeletal muscle contains muscle tissue, connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves
Organization of Connective Tissues and Muscle Tissue
The function of Skeletal Muscle Components
10-3 Skeletal muscle fibers are organized into repeating functional units that contain sliding filaments
The Sarcolemma and Transverse Tubules
The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
The Sliding-Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction
10-4 Motor neurons stimulate skeletal muscle fibers to contract at the neuromuscular junction
Electrical Impulses and Excitable Membranes
The Control of Skeletal Muscle Activity
10-5 Muscle fibers produce different amounts of tension depending on sarcomere length and frequency of stimulation
Length–Tension Relationships
Frequency of Stimulation
10-6 Skeletal muscles produce increased tension by recruiting additional motor units
Motor Units
Types of Muscle Contractions
Load and Speed of Contraction
Muscle Relaxation and the Return to Resting Length
10-7 To maintain regular muscle fiber activity, energy and recovery are required
ATP Generation and Muscle Fiber Contraction
Muscle Metabolism and Varying Activity Levels
The Recovery Period
Hormones and Muscle Metabolism
10-8 Muscle performance depends on muscle fiber type and physical conditioning
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Muscle Performance and the Distribution of Muscle Fibers
Muscle Hypertrophy, Atrophy, and Effects of Aging
Muscle Fatigue
Physical Conditioning
10-9 Cardiac muscle tissue, found in the heart, produces coordinated and automatic contractions
Structural Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Functional Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle Tissue
10-10 Smooth muscle tissue contracts to move substances within internal passageways
Structural Characteristics of Smooth Muscle Tissue
Functional Characteristics of Smooth Muscle Tissue
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 10–17 The Arrangement and Activity of Motor Units in a Skeletal Muscle.
Figure 10–20 Muscle Metabolism.
Events at the Neuromuscular Junction
Excitation–Contraction Coupling
The Contraction Cycle and Cross-Bridge Formation
Clinical Case
Keep on Keepin’ on
Clinical Notes
Rigor Mortis
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
11 The Muscular System
An Introduction to the Muscular System
11-1 Fascicle arrangement is correlated with muscle power and range of motion
Parallel Muscles
Convergent Muscles
Pennate Muscles
Circular Muscles
11-2 The use of bones as levers increase muscle efficiency
11-3 The origins and insertions of muscles determine their actions
Origins and Insertions
11-4 Descriptive terms are used to name skeletal muscles
Region of the Body
Position, Direction, or Fascicle Arrangement
Structural Characteristics
11-5 Axial muscles position the axial skeleton, and appendicular muscles support and move the appendicular skeleton
11-6 Axial muscles are muscles of the head and neck, the vertebral column, trunk, and pelvic floor
Muscles of the Head and Neck
Muscles of the Vertebral Column
Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
11-7 Appendicular muscles are muscles of the shoulders, upper limbs, pelvis, and lower limbs
Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs
Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
11-8 Exercise of the muscular system produces responses in multiple body systems
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the MUSCULAR systems with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
Muscle Action
Clinical Case
Downward-Facing Dog
Clinical Notes
Intramuscular Injections
Signs of Stroke

12 Nervous Tissue
An Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
12-1 The nervous system has anatomical and functional divisions
The Anatomical Divisions of the Nervous System
The Functional Divisions of the Nervous System
12-2 Neurons are nerve cells specialized for intercellular communication
Functional Characteristics of Neurons
The Structure of Neurons
The Classification of Neurons
12-3 CNS and PNS neuroglia support and protect neurons
Neuroglia of the Central Nervous System
Neuroglia of the Peripheral Nervous System
Neural Responses to Injuries
12-4 The membrane potential of a neuron is determined by differences in ion concentrations and membrane permeability
The Resting Membrane Potential
Changes in the Resting Membrane Potential: Membrane Channels
Graded Potentials
12-5 An action potential is an all-or-none electrical event used for long-distance communication
Threshold and the All-or-None Principle
Generation of Action Potentials
Propagation of Action Potentials
Axon Diameter and Propagation Speed
12-6 Synapses transmit signals among neurons or between neurons and other cells
Types of Synapses
The function of Chemical Synapses
12-7 The effects of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators depend on their receptors
Classes of Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators
The Functions of Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators and Their Receptors
12-8 Individual neurons process information by integrating excitatory and inhibitory stimuli
Postsynaptic Potentials
Presynaptic Regulation: Inhibition and Facilitation
The Rate of Action Potential Generation
Chapter Review
Processes That Produce the Resting Membrane Potential
Generation of an Action Potential
Propagation of an Action Potential
Clinical Case
Did President Franklin D. Roosevelt Really Have Polio?
Clinical Notes
CNS Tumors
13 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes
An Introduction to the Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes
13-1 This text’s coverage of the nervous system parallels its simple-to-complex levels of the organization
13-2 The spinal cord is surrounded by three meninges and has spinal nerve roots
Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Protection of the Spinal Cord: Spinal Meninges
13-3 Spinal cord gray matter integrates information and initiates commands, and white matter carries information from place to place
Functional Organization of Gray Matter
Functional Organization of White Matter
13-4 Spinal nerves extend to form peripheral nerves, sometimes forming plexuses along the way; these nerves carry sensory and motor information
Anatomy of Spinal Nerves
Peripheral Distribution and Function of Spinal Nerves
Nerve Plexuses
13-5 Interneurons are organized into functional groups called neuronal pools
13-6 The different types of neural reflexes are all rapid, automatic responses to stimuli
The Reflex Arc
Classification of Reflexes
13-7 Monosynaptic reflexes produce simple responses, while polysynaptic reflexes can produce complex behaviors
Monosynaptic Reflexes
Polysynaptic Reflexes
13-8 The brain can affect spinal cord–based reflexes
Voluntary Movements and Reflex Motor Patterns
Reinforcement and Inhibition
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 13–1 An Overview of Chapters 13 and 14.
Structure, Function, and the Peripheral Distribution of Spinal Nerves (T1–L2)
Spinal Reflexes
Clinical Case
Prom Night
16 The Autonomic Nervous
System and Higher-Order Functions
An Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-Order Functions
16-1 The autonomic nervous system, which has sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions is involved in the unconscious regulation of visceral functions
Comparison of the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
Organization of the ANS
Divisions of the ANS
16-2 The sympathetic division has short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers and is involved in using energy and increasing metabolic rate
Functional Organization of the Sympathetic Division
Sympathetic Activation
16-3 Different types of neurotransmitters and receptors lead to different sympathetic effects
Effects of Sympathetic Stimulation of Adrenergic Synapses and Receptors
Effects of Sympathetic Stimulation on Other Types of Synapses
16-4 The parasympathetic division has long preganglionic fibers and short postganglionic fibers and is involved in conserving energy and lowering metabolic rate
Functional Organization of the Parasympathetic Division
Parasympathetic Activation
16-5 Different types of receptors lead to different parasympathetic effects
Effects of Parasympathetic Stimulation of Cholinergic Receptors
Effects of Toxins on Cholinergic Receptors
16-6 The differences in the organization of sympathetic and parasympathetic structures lead to widespread sympathetic effects and specific parasympathetic effects
Summary of the Sympathetic Division
Summary of the Parasympathetic Division
16-7 Dual innervation of organs allows the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions to coordinate vital functions
Anatomy of Dual Innervation
Autonomic Tone
16-8 Various levels of autonomic regulation allow for the integration and control of autonomic functions
Visceral Reflexes
Higher Levels of Autonomic Control
The Integration of ANS and SNS Activities
16-9 Higher-order functions include memory and states of consciousness and neurotransmitters influence behavior
States of Consciousness
Influence of Neurotransmitters on Brain Chemistry and Behavior
16-10 Aging produces various structural and functional changes in the nervous system
Build Your Knowledge Integration of the NERVOUS system with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
The Autonomic Nervous System
Clinical Case
Remember Me?
Clinical Notes
Summary of Nervous System Disorders
17 The Special Senses An Introduction to the Special Senses

17-1 Olfaction, the sense of smell, involves olfactory receptors responding to airborne chemical stimuli
Anatomy of the Olfactory Organs
Olfactory Receptors and the Physiology of Olfaction
Olfactory Pathways
Olfactory Discrimination
17-2 Gustation, the sense of taste, involves gustatory receptors responding to dissolved chemical stimuli
Anatomy of Papillae and Taste Buds
Gustatory Receptors
Gustatory Pathways
Gustatory Discrimination and Physiology of Gustation
17-3 Internal eye structures contribute to the vision, while accessory eye structures provide protection
Accessory Structures of the Eye
Anatomy of the Eyeball
17-4 The focusing of light on the retina leads to the formation of a visual image
An Introduction to Light
Image Formation and Reversal
Visual Acuity
17-5 Photoreceptors transduce light into electrical signals that are then processed in the visual cortex
Physiology of Vision
The Visual Pathways

17-6 Equilibrium sensations monitor head position and movement, while hearing involves the detection and interpretation of sound waves 592
Anatomy of the Ear
Chapter Review
Olfaction and Gustation
Refractive Problems
Clinical Case
A Chance to See
Clinical Notes
Diabetic Retinopathy
Detached Retina
Motion Sickness
18 The Endocrine System
An Introduction to the Endocrine System
18-1 Homeostasis is preserved through intercellular communication by the nervous and endocrine systems
Mechanisms of Intercellular Communication
Comparison of Endocrine and Nervous Communication
18-2 The endocrine system regulates physiological processes by releasing bloodborne hormones that bind to receptors on remote target organs
Overview of Endocrine Organs and Tissues
Classes of Hormones
Transport and Inactivation of Hormones
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
Control of Hormone Secretion
18-3 The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces and releases hormones under hypothalamic control, while the posterior lobe releases hypothalamic hormones
Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Control of Pituitary Activity by the Hypothalamus
The Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
The Posterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
Summary: The Hormones of the Pituitary Gland
18-4 The thyroid gland synthesizes thyroid hormones that affect the rate of metabolism
Anatomy of the Thyroid Gland
Synthesis and Regulation of Thyroid Hormones
Functions of Thyroid Hormones
Synthesis and Functions of Calcitonin
18-5 The four parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, which increases the blood calcium ion level
18-6 The paired adrenal glands secrete several
hormones that affect electrolyte balance and stress 
Anatomy of the Adrenal Glands
Corticosteroids of the Adrenal Cortex
Catecholamines of the Adrenal Medulla
18-7 The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which affects the circadian rhythm
18-8 The pancreas is both an exocrine organ and an endocrine gland that produces hormones affecting the blood glucose level
Anatomy of the Pancreas
Functions of Pancreatic Islet Cells
Hormones That Regulate the Blood Glucose Level
Diabetes Mellitus
18-9 Many organs have secondary endocrine functions
The Intestines
The Kidneys
The Heart
The Thymus
The Gonads
Adipose Tissue
18-10 Hormones interact over our lifetime to produce coordinated physiological responses
Role of Hormones in Growth
The Hormonal Responses to Stress
The Effects of Hormones on Behavior
Aging and Hormone Production
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the ENDOCRINE system with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 18–16 Anatomy of the Pancreas.
Structural Classification of Hormones
G Proteins and Second Messengers
Diabetes Mellitus
The General Adaptation Syndrome
Clinical Case
Stones, Bones, and Groans
Clinical Notes
Diabetes Insipidus
Endocrine Disorders
Hormones and Athletic Performance

19 Blood
An Introduction to Blood and the Cardiovascular System
19-1 Blood, composed of plasma and formed elements, provides transport, regulation, and protective services to the body
Functions of Blood
Characteristics of Blood
Components of Blood
19-2 Red blood cells, formed by erythropoiesis, contain hemoglobin that transports respiratory gases
The abundance of RBCs: The Hematocrit
Relationship of RBC Structure to RBC Function
RBC Formation and Turnover
19-3 The ABO and Rh blood groups are based on antigen-antibody responses
ABO and Rh Blood Groups
19-4 The various types of white blood cells contribute to the body’s defenses
WBC Characteristics and Functions
Types of WBCs
The Differential Count and Changes in WBC Profiles
WBC Production: Leukopoiesis
Regulation of WBC Production
19-5 Platelets, disc-shaped cell fragments, function in the clotting process
Platelet Functions
Platelet Production
19-6 The process of blood clotting, or hemostasis, stops blood loss
The Vascular Phase
The Platelet Phase
The Coagulation Phase
Clot Retraction
Chapter Review
The Composition of Whole Blood
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
Clinical Case
Crisis in the Blood
Clinical Notes
Plasma Expanders
Collecting Blood for Analysis
Bleeding and Clotting Extremes
20 The Heart
An Introduction to the Heart as Part of the Cardiovascular System
20-1 The heart is a four-chambered organ that pumps blood through the systemic and pulmonary circuits
Overview of Heart Function: The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits
Heart Location and Position
Heart Superficial Anatomy, Heart Wall, and Cardiac Skeleton
Heart Chambers, Valves, and Great Vessels
Blood Flow through the Heart Valves
The Blood Supply to the Heart
20-2 The cells of the conducting system distribute electrical impulses through the heart, causing cardiac contractile cells to contract
Cardiac Physiology: Electrical Impulses Leading to the Contractions Making Up a Heartbeat
The Conducting System: Pacemaker and Conducting Cells
The Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Cardiac Contractions: Contractile Cells
20-3 The contraction–relaxation events that occur during a complete heartbeat makes up a cardiac cycle
An Introduction to Pressure and Flow in the Heart
Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
Pressure and Volume Changes in the Cardiac Cycle
Heart Sounds
20-4 Cardiac output is determined by heart rate and stroke volume
Factors Affecting the Heart Rate
Factors Affecting the Stroke Volume
Summary: The Control of Cardiac Output
The Heart and the Vessels of the Cardiovascular System
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 20–16 Phases of the Cardiac Cycle.
Figure 20–19 Factors Affecting Cardiac Output.
Heart Disease and Heart Attacks
Cardiac Arrhythmias
Clinical Case
A Needle to the Chest
Clinical Notes
Faulty Heart Valves
Broken-Heart Syndrome
21 Blood Vessels and Circulation
An Introduction to Blood Vessels and Circulation
21-1 Arteries, which are elastic or muscular, and veins, which contain valves, have three-layered walls; capillaries have thin walls with only one layer
Vessel Wall Structure in Arteries and Veins
Differences between Arteries and Veins
The Distribution of Blood
21-2 Pressure and resistance determine blood flow and affect rates of capillary exchange
Introduction to Pressure and Flow in Blood Vessels
Pressures Affecting Blood Flow
Total Peripheral Resistance
An Overview of Cardiovascular Pressures
Capillary Exchange and Capillary Pressures
21-3 Blood flow and pressure in tissues are controlled by both autoregulation and central regulation
Overview of Autoregulation and Central Regulation
Autoregulation of Blood Flow within Tissues
Central Regulation: Neural Mechanisms
Central Regulation: Endocrine Mechanisms
21-4 The cardiovascular system adapts to physiological stress while maintaining a special vascular supply to the brain, heart, and lungs
Vascular Supply to Special Regions
The Cardiovascular Response to Exercise
The Cardiovascular Response to Hemorrhaging and Shock
21-5 The vessels of the cardiovascular system make up both pulmonary and systemic circuits
21-6 In the pulmonary circuit, deoxygenated blood enters the lungs in arteries, and oxygenated blood leaves the lungs by veins
21-7 The systemic circuit carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to tissues and organs other than the lungs and returns deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
Systemic Arteries
The Ascending Aorta
The Aortic Arch
Systemic Veins
21-8 Modifications of fetal and maternal cardiovascular systems promote the exchange of materials; the fetal cardiovascular system changes to function independently after birth
Fetal Circulatory Route and Placental Blood Supply
Fetal Heart and Great Vessels
Cardiovascular Changes at Birth
21-9 Aging affects the blood, heart, and blood vessels
Build Your Knowledge Integration of the CARDIOVASCULAR system with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
Congenital Heart Problems
Clinical Case
Did Ancient Mummies Have Atherosclerosis?
Clinical Notes
Varicose Veins
Aortic Aneurysm
Preparing the Circulation for Dialysis
22 The Lymphatic System and Immunity
An Introduction to the Lymphatic System and Immunity
22-1 The vessels, tissues, and organs of the lymphatic system maintain fluid volume and function in the body defenses
Functions of the Lymphatic System
Lymphatic Vessels and Circulation of Lymph
Lymphoid Cells
Lymphoid Tissues
Lymphoid Organs
22-2 Lymphocytes are important to innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) immunity
Types of Immunity
22-3 Innate defenses respond the same regardless of the invader
Physical Barriers
Immune Surveillance
Complement System
22-4 Adaptive (specific) defenses respond to particular threats and are either cell-mediated or antibody-mediated
Lymphocytes of Adaptive Immunity
Types of Adaptive Immunity
An Introduction to Adaptive Immunity
Forms of Adaptive Immunity
Properties of Adaptive Immunity
22-5 In cell-mediated adaptive immunity, presented antigens activate T cells, which respond by producing cytotoxic and helper T cells
Activation and Clonal Selection of T Cells
Functions of Activated CD8 T Cells
Functions of Activated CD4 T Cells: Helper T (T
H) and Memory TH Cells
Cytokines of Adaptive Defenses
Summary of Cell-Mediated Adaptive Immunity
22-6 In antibody-mediated adaptive immunity, sensitized B cells respond to antigens by producing specific antibodies
B Cell Sensitization and Activation
Antibody Structure and Function
Primary and Secondary Responses to Antigen Exposure
22-7 Immunocompetence enables a normal immune response; abnormal responses result in immune disorders
Summary of Innate and Adaptive Immunity
The Development of Immunocompetence
Stress and the Immune Response
Immune Disorders
22-8 The immune response diminishes as we age
22-9 The nervous and endocrine systems influence the immune response
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the LYMPHATIC system with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 22–17 Forms of Immunity.
Cytokines of the Immune System
Clinical Case
Isn’t There a Vaccine for That?
Clinical Notes
Lab Tests for Organ Donation
Organ Donation

23 The Respiratory System
An Introduction to the Respiratory System
23-1 The respiratory system, organized into an upper respiratory system and a lower respiratory system, functions primarily to aid gas exchange
Functions of the Respiratory System
Organization of the Respiratory System
The Respiratory Mucosa and the Respiratory Defense System
23-2 The conducting portion of the upper respiratory system filters warms and humidifies the air
The Nose and Nasal Cavity
The Pharynx
23-3 The conducting portion of the lower respiratory the system conducts air to the respiratory portion and produces sound
The Larynx
Sound Production
The Trachea
The Bronchial Tree
23-4 The respiratory portion of the lower respiratory system is where gas exchange occurs
The Respiratory Bronchioles
Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli
The Blood Air Barrier
23-5 Enclosed by pleural cavities, the lungs are paired organs made up of multiple lobes
Anatomy of the Lungs
Blood Supply to the Lungs
Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes
23-6 External respiration and internal respiration allow gas exchange within the body
23-7 Pulmonary ventilation—air exchange between the atmosphere and the lungs—involves muscle actions and volume changes that cause pressure changes
An Introduction to Airflow
Overview of Pulmonary Ventilation: Volume Changes and Pressure Gradients
Actions of the Respiratory Muscles
Volume Changes in Pulmonary Ventilation
Pressure Gradients in Pulmonary Ventilation
Summary of Volume Changes and Pressure Gradients
during a Respiratory Cycle
Physical Factors Affecting Pulmonary Ventilation
Measuring Respiratory Rates and Volumes
23-8 Gas exchange depends on the partial pressures of gases and the diffusion of gas molecules
An Introduction to the Diffusion of Gases
Diffusion of Gases across the Blood Air Barrier
Summary of Gas Exchange
Internal Respiration
23-9 In gas transport, most oxygen is transported bound to hemoglobin, whereas carbon dioxide is transported in three ways
Oxygen Transport
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Summary of Gas Transport
23-10 Respiratory centers in the brainstem, along with respiratory reflexes, control respiration
Local Regulation of Oxygen Delivery and Ventilation-perfusion Ratio
Neural Control of Respiration
23-11 Respiratory performance changes over the life span
Changes in the Respiratory System in Newborns
Changes in the Respiratory System in Elderly Individuals
23-12 The respiratory system provides oxygen to, and eliminates carbon dioxide from, other organ systems
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the RESPIRATORY system with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 23–18 A Summary of Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration.
Pulmonary Ventilation
Control of Respiration
Clinical Case
No Rest for the Weary
Clinical Notes
Breakdown of the Respiratory Defense System
Decompression Sickness
Blood Gas Analysis
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Smoking and the Lungs
The Digestive System
An Introduction to the Digestive System
24-1 The digestive system, consisting of the digestive tract and accessory organs functions primarily to break down and absorb nutrients from food and to eliminate wastes
Functions and Processes of the Digestive System
Relationship between the Digestive Organs and the Peritoneum: The Mesenteries
Histology of the Digestive Tract
Motility of the Digestive Tract
Regulation of Digestive Functions
24-2 The oral cavity, which contains the tongue, teeth, and salivary glands, functions in the ingestion and mechanical digestion of food
The Oral Cavity
The Tongue
The Teeth
The Salivary Glands
Mechanical Digestion: Mastication (Chewing)
24-3 The pharynx and esophagus are passageways that transport the food bolus from the oral cavity to the stomach
The Pharynx
The Esophagus
Ingestion: Deglutition (Swallowing)
24-4 The stomach is a J-shaped organ that receives the bolus and aids in its chemical and mechanical digestion
Gross Anatomy of the Stomach
Histology of the Stomach
Secretory Glands and Gastric Secretions
Physiology of the Stomach: Chemical Digestion
Regulation of Gastric Activity in Phases of Digestion
24-5 Accessory digestive organs, such as the pancreas and liver, produce secretions that aid in chemical digestion
The Pancreas
The Liver
The Gallbladder
24-6 The small intestine primarily functions in the chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients
Gross Anatomy of the Small Intestine
Histology of the Small Intestine
Physiology of the Small Intestine
Regulation: Coordination of Secretion and Absorption in the Digestive Tract
24-7 The large intestine, which is divided into three parts absorbs water from digestive materials and eliminates the remaining waste as feces
Gross Anatomy and Segments of the Large Intestine
Histology of the Large Intestine
Physiology of the Large Intestine
24-8 Chemical digestion is the enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of food into nutrients that can be absorbed and used by the body
Hydrolysis of Nutrients by Enzymes
Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption
Lipid Digestion and Absorption
Protein Digestion and Absorption
Nucleic Acid Digestion and Absorption
Absorption of Water, Ions, and Vitamins
24-9 Many age-related changes affect digestion and absorption
24-10 The digestive system is extensively integrated with other body systems
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the DIGESTIVE system with the other body systems presented so far
Chapter Review
SmartArt Videos
Figure 24–18 Histology of the Liver.
The Regulation of Gastric Activity
The Chemical Events of Digestion
Clinical Case
An Unusual Transplant
Clinical Notes
Epithelial Renewal and Repair
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcers
Colorectal Cancer
25 Metabolism, Nutrition, and Energetics
An Introduction to Metabolism, Nutrition, and Energetics
25-1 Metabolism is the sum of all the catabolic and anabolic reactions in the body, and energetics is the flow and transformation of energy
Oxidation and Reduction
25-2 Carbohydrate metabolism generates ATP by glucose catabolism and forms glucose by gluconeogenesis
Overview of Glucose Catabolism
Glucose Catabolism: Glycolysis
Glucose Catabolism: Fate of Pyruvate
Glucose Catabolism: Aerobic Metabolism
Glucose Catabolism: Energy Yield of Glycolysis and Aerobic Metabolism
Glucose Anabolism: Gluconeogenesis
25-3 Lipid metabolism provides long-term storage and
release of energy 951
Lipid Catabolism: Lipolysis 951
Lipid Anabolism: Lipogenesis 953
Lipid Storage and Energy Release 953
Lipid Transport and Distribution 953
25-4 Protein metabolism provides amino acids and
synthesizes proteins 956
Amino Acid Catabolism 956
Protein Synthesis 956
25-5 The body experiences two patterns of metabolic
activity: energy storage in the absorptive state and
energy release in the postabsorptive state 957
25-6 Adequate nutrition allows normal physiological
functioning 959
Food Groups and a Balanced Diet 959
Nitrogen Balance 962
The Role of Minerals and Vitamins
25-7 Metabolic rate is the average caloric expenditure, and
thermoregulation involves balancing heat-producing
and heat-losing mechanisms 966
Energy Gains and Losses 966
Thermoregulation 967
Chapter Review 972
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Formation 947
Absorptive and Postabsorptive States 960
Clinical Case
The Miracle Supplement 940
Clinical Notes
Carbohydrate Loading 951
Dietary Fats and Cholesterol 955
Blood Testing for Fat 955
Vitamins 965
Alcohol by the Numbers 965
Alcohol and Disease 965
Anorexia 966
Superfoods 966
Hypothermia in the Operating Room 970
Excess Body Heat 971
Deficient Body Heat 971
26 The Urinary
System 976
An Introduction to the Urinary System 977
26-1 The organs of the urinary system
function in excreting wastes and
regulating body fluids 977
Organs of the Urinary System 977
Urinary System Functions 978
26-2 Kidneys are highly vascular organs containing
functional units called nephrons 978
Position and Associated Structures of the Kidneys 978
Gross Anatomy of the Kidneys 979
Blood Supply and Innervation of the Kidneys 980
Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidneys: The Nephron and
Collecting System 982
26-3 Different segments of the nephron form urine by
filtration, reabsorption, and secretion 987
Metabolic Wastes 987
Basic Processes of Urine Formation 987
26-4 The glomerulus filters blood through the filtration
membrane to produce filtrate; several pressures
determine the glomerular filtration rate 989
Function of the Filtration Membrane 989
Filtration Pressures 989
The Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) 990
Regulation of the GFR
26-5 The renal tubule reabsorbs nutrients, ions, and water
and secretes ions and wastes; the collecting system
reabsorbs ions and water 993
Principles of Reabsorption and Secretion 993
An Overview of Reabsorbed and Secreted
Substances 994
Reabsorption and Secretion along the PCT 995
Reabsorption and Secretion along the Nephron
Loop 995
Reabsorption and Secretion along the DCT 997
Reabsorption and Secretion along the Collecting
System 1000
26-6 Countercurrent multiplication allows the kidneys to
regulate the volume and concentration of
urine 1001
The Nephron Loop and Countercurrent
Multiplication 1001
Regulation of Urine Volume and Osmotic Concentration:
Production of Dilute and Concentrated
Urine 1003
The Function of the Vasa Recta: Countercurrent
Exchange 1005
Urine Composition and Analysis 1005
26-7 Urine is transported by the ureters, stored in the
bladder, and eliminated through the urethra by urinary
reflexes 1009
The Ureters 1009
The Urinary Bladder 1010
The Urethra 1011
Urinary Reflexes: Urine Storage and Urine Voiding 1012
26-8 Age-related changes affect kidney function and
urination 1013
26-9 The urinary system is one of several body systems
involved in waste excretion 1014
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the URINARY system with the other body systems presented
so far 1015
Chapter Review 1016
SmartArt Videos
Figure 26–8 The Locations and Structures of Cortical and Juxtamedullary
Nephrons. 985
Summary of Renal Function 1006
Clinical Case
A Case of “Hidden” Bleeding 977
Clinical Notes
Glomerulonephritis 984
Diuretics 1000
Urinary Obstruction 1013
Renal Failure and Kidney Transplant 1014
27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and
Balance 1021
An Introduction to Fluid, Electrolyte,
and Acid-Base Balance 1022
27-1 Fluid balance, electrolyte balance,
and acid-base balance are interrelated and essential
to homeostasis 1022
27-2 Extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid
(ICF) are fluid compartments with differing solute
concentrations that are closely regulated 1023
Body Water Content 1023
The Fluid Compartments of the ECF and ICF 1023
Solute Exchanges between the ECF and the ICF 1024
An Overview of the Regulation of Fluid and Electrolyte
Balance 1025
27-3 Fluid balance involves the regulation and distribution
of water gains and losses 1027
Fluid Gains and Losses 1027
Water Movement between Fluid Compartments 1028
Fluid Shifts between the ECF and ICF 1028
27-4 In electrolyte balance, the concentrations of sodium,
potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and
chloride ions in body fluids are tightly regulated 1030
Sodium Balance 1030
Potassium Balance 1033
Balance of Other Electrolytes 1034
27-5 In acid-base balance, buffer systems as well as
respiratory and renal compensation regulate pH
changes in body fluids 1036
Types of Acids in the Body 1036
Mechanisms of pH Control: Buffer Systems 1036
Regulation of Acid-Base Balance 1041
27-6 Disorders of acid-base balance can be classified as
respiratory or metabolic 1042
Respiratory Acid-Base Disorders 1045
Metabolic Acid-Base Disorders 1046
Combined Respiratory and Metabolic Acidosis 1049
The Detection of Acidosis and Alkalosis 1049
27-7 Aging affects fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base
balance 1049
Chapter Review 1051
The Diagnosis of Acid-Base Disorders 1050
Clinical Case
When Treatment Makes You Worse 1022
Clinical Notes
Water and Weight Loss 1029
Athletes and Salt Loss 1033
Sports Drinks
28 The Reproductive
System 1055
An Introduction to the Reproductive
System 1056
28-1 Male and female reproductive
system structures produce
gametes that combine to form a
new individual 1056
28-2 The structures of the male reproductive system
consist of the testes, duct system, accessory glands,
and penis 1057
The Testes and Associated Structures 1057
Functional Anatomy of the Male Reproductive Duct
System 1059
The Accessory Glands 1061
Semen 1063
The Penis 1063
28-3 Spermatogenesis occurs in the testes, and hormones
from the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and testes
control male reproductive functions 1065
Overview of Mitosis and Meiosis 1065
Spermatogenesis 1067
Maturation of Sperm 1070
The Anatomy of a Sperm 1070
Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive
Function 1070
28-4 The structures of the female reproductive system
consist of the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina,
and external genitalia 1072
The Ovaries 1073
The Uterine Tubes 1074
The Uterus 1075
The Vagina 1078
The Female External Genitalia 1080
The Breasts 1080
28-5 Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries, and hormones from
the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries control
female reproductive functions 1082
Oogenesis 1082
The Ovarian Cycle 1085
The Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle 1086
Hormonal Coordination of the Ovarian and Uterine
Cycles 1087
28-6 The autonomic nervous system influences male and
female sexual function 1091
Human Sexual Function 1091
Contraception and Infertility 1092
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
28-7 Changes in levels of reproductive hormones cause
functional changes throughout the life span 1093
Development of the Genitalia 1093
Effects of Aging 1094
28-8 The reproductive system secretes hormones
affecting growth and metabolism of all body
systems 1096
Build Your Knowledge
Integration of the REPRODUCTIVE system with the other body
systems presented so far 1097
Chapter Review 1098
Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproduction 1071
Hormonal Regulation of Female Reproduction 1088
Clinical Case
And Baby Makes Three? 1056
Clinical Notes
Circumcision 1065
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) 1070
Enlarged Prostate 1072
Prostate Cancer 1072
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Testing 1072
Ovarian Cancer 1075
Pap Smear 1077
Fibrocystic Disease and Breast Cancer 1081
Laparoscopy 1082
Mammoplasty 1082
29 Development and
Inheritance 1103
An Introduction to Development and
Inheritance 1104
29-1 Directed by inherited genes, a
fertilized ovum differentiates
during prenatal development to
form an individual; postnatal
development brings that individual to maturity 1104
29-2 Fertilization—the fusion of a secondary oocyte and a
sperm—forms a zygote 1105
The Secondary Oocyte and Sperm before
Fertilization 1105
The Process of Fertilization 1105
Events after Fertilization 1106
29-3 Gestation consists of three stages of prenatal
development: the first, second, and third
trimesters 1107
29-4 The first trimester includes pre-embryonic and
embryonic development, involving the processes
of cleavage, implantation, placentation, and
embryogenesis 1107
The Pre-Embryonic Period 1108
The Embryonic Period
29-5 During the second and third trimesters, fetal
development involves growth and organ function 1115
29-6 During gestation, maternal organ systems support
the developing fetus; the reproductive system
undergoes structural and functional changes 1117
Hormonal Regulation during Gestation 1120
Changes in Maternal Organ Systems 1121
29-7 Childbirth occurs through the process of labor, which
consists of the dilation, expulsion, and placental
stages 1123
Initiation of Labor 1123
The Stages of Labor 1123
Difficulties of Labor and Delivery and Multiple
Births 1124
29-8 Postnatal stages are the neonatal period, infancy,
childhood, adolescence, and maturity, followed by
senescence and death 1126
The Neonatal Period, Infancy, and Childhood 1127
Adolescence and Maturity 1130
Senescence and Death 1131
29-9 Genes and chromosomes determine patterns of
inheritance 1131
Genotype and Phenotype 1131
Homologous Chromosomes and Alleles 1132
Autosomal Patterns of Inheritance 1132
Sex-Linked Patterns of Inheritance 1135
Sources of Individual Variation
Effect of Environmental Factors: Penetrance and
Expressivity 1138
The Human Genome 1138
Chapter Review 1140
Extra-Embryonic Membranes and Placenta Formation 1112
Clinical Case
The Twins That Looked Nothing Alike 1104
Clinical Notes
Abortion 1123
C-Section 1126
Chromosomal Abnormalities 1137
Amniocentesis 1137
Answers to Checkpoints, Review Questions, and Clinical Case
Wrap-Ups AN-1
Appendix A Normal Physiological Values A-1
Appendix B Gas Pressure Measurements and Cell Turnover Times A-3
Appendix C Codon Chart A-4
Appendix D Periodic Table of the Elements A-5
Glossary G-1
Credits C-1

About the Author

Frederic (Ric) H. Martini, Ph.D. Author
Dr. Martini received his Ph.D. from Cornell University in comparative and functional anatomy for work on the pathophysiology of stress. In addition to professional publications that include journal articles and contributed chapters, technical reports, and magazine articles, he is the lead author of 10 undergraduate texts on anatomy and physiology or anatomy. Dr. Martini is currently affiliated with the University of Hawaii at Manoa and has a long-standing bond with the Shoals Marine Laboratory, a joint venture between Cornell University and the University of New Hampshire. He has been active in the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) for over 24 years and was a member of the committee that established the course curriculum guidelines for A&P. He is now a President Emeritus of HAPS after serving as President-Elect, President, and Past-President over 2005–2007. Dr. Martini is also a member of the American Physiological Society, the American Association of Anatomists, the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, the Australia/New Zealand Association of Clinical Anatomists, the Hawaii Academy of Science, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the International Society of Vertebrate Morphologists.
Edwin F. Bartholomew, M.S. Author
Edwin F. Bartholomew received his undergraduate degree from Bowling Green State University in Ohio and his M.S. from the University of Hawaii. Mr. Bartholomew has taught human anatomy and physiology at both the secondary and undergraduate levels.  In addition, he has taught a range of other science courses (from botany to zoology) at Maui Community College (now the University of Hawaii Maui College). For many years, he taught at historic Lahainaluna High School (LHS), the oldest high school west of the Rockies, where he assisted in establishing an LHS Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA) chapter. He is a co-author of Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Visual Anatomy & Physiology, Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Structure and Function of the Human Body, and The Human Body in Health and Disease (all published by Pearson). Mr. Bartholomew is a member of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), the National Association of Biology Teachers, the National Science Teachers Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Judi L. Nath, Ph.D. Author
Dr. Judi Nath is a biology professor and the writer-in-residence at Lourdes University, where she teaches at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Primary courses include anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, medical terminology, and science writing. She received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Bowling Green State University, which included study abroad at the University of Salzburg in Austria. Her doctoral work focused on autoimmunity, and she completed her Ph.D. from the University of Toledo. Dr. Nath is devoted to her students and strives to convey the intricacies of science in captivating ways that are meaningful, interactive, and exciting. She has won the Faculty Excellence Award―an accolade recognizing effective teaching, scholarship, and community service―multiple times and in 2013 was named as an Ohio Memorable Educator. She is active in many professional organizations, notably the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), where she has served several terms on the board of directors. Dr. Nath is a coauthor of Visual Anatomy & Physiology, Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Anatomy & Physiology, and Human Anatomy (published by Pearson), and she is the sole author of Using Medical Terminology and Stedman’s Medical Terminology (published by Wolters Kluwer). Her favorite charities are those that have significantly affected her life, including the local Humane Society, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, and the ALS Association. In 2015, she and her husband established the Nath Science Scholarship at Lourdes University to assist students pursuing science-based careers. When not working, days are filled with family life, bicycling, and hanging with the dogs.
William C. Ober, M.D. Art Coordinator and Illustrator
Dr. Ober received his undergraduate degree from Washington and Lee University and his M.D. from the University of Virginia. He also studied in the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. After graduation, Dr. Ober completed a residency in Family Practice and later was on the faculty at the University of Virginia in the Department of Family Medicine and in the Department of Sports Medicine. He also served as Chief of Medicine of Martha Jefferson Hospital in Charlottesville, Virginia. He is currently a Visiting Professor of Biology at Washington and Lee University, where he has taught several courses and led student trips to the Galapagos Islands. He was on the Core Faculty at Shoals Marine Laboratory for 24 years, where he taught Biological Illustration every summer. Dr. Ober has collaborated with Dr. Martini on all of his textbooks in every edition.
Claire E. Ober, R.N. Illustrator
Claire E. Ober, R.N., B.A., practiced family, pediatric, and obstetric nursing before turning to medical illustration as a full-time career. She returned to school at Mary Baldwin College, where she received her degree with distinction in studio art. Following a 5-year apprenticeship, she has worked as Dr. Ober’s partner in Medical & Scientific Illustration since 1986. She was on the Core Faculty at Shoals Marine Laboratory and co-taught the Biological Illustration course with Dr. Ober for 24 years. The textbooks illustrated by Medical & Scientific Illustration have won numerous design and illustration awards.
Christine Boudrie, M.D. Clinical Contributor    
Dr. Boudrie studied at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, for her B.S. in biology, and also obtained her M.D. there. After graduation, she served in the National Health Service Corps, a program of the U.S. Public Health Service, which sponsored her last 2 years of medical school. She was assigned to provide health education to the rural communities of southeast Michigan with a special focus on seniors. She has had the great pleasure of working with a variety of undergraduate and graduate students in the Northeast and Midwest, earning teaching excellence awards and a nomination for Carnegie Foundation’s U.S. Professor of the Year in 2014. Currently, she chairs the Department of Biology and Health Sciences at Lourdes University, a small Franciscan liberal arts school in northwest Ohio. Dr. B’s passion is the vital engagement of her students in the study of anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. She often brings in references to her love of the arts, of cooking, and of reading across the disciplines. Her family fosters stray dogs and cats and maintains an organic home garden and orchard in the country.
Ruth Anne O’Keefe, M.D. Clinical Contributor
Dr. O’Keefe did her undergraduate studies at Marquette University, attended graduate school at the University of Wisconsin, and received her M.D. from George Washington University. She was the first woman to study orthopedics at The Ohio State University during her residency. She did fellowship training in trauma surgery at Loma Linda University in California. In addition to her private orthopedic practice, she has done orthopedic surgery around the world, taking her own surgical teams to places such as the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Peru, New Zealand, and Burkina Faso. She serves on the board of Global Health Partnerships, a group that partners with a clinic serving 35,000 people in remote Kenya. Dr. O’Keefe has always enjoyed teaching and now supervises medical students from the University of New Mexico doing ongoing research in Kenya. She lives in Albuquerque with her Sweet Ed. She is the mother of four, grandmother of nine, and foster mother to many.Kevin Petti Smart Art Video Contributor
Dr. Petti is a professor at San Diego Miramar College and teaches courses in human anatomy and physiology, human dissection, and health education. He is President Emeritus of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and holds a doctorate from the University of San Diego. As a dual U.S./Italian citizen, he also teaches courses in Italy that focus on the genesis of anatomy as a science and its influence on the Renaissance masters, a story unique to the Italian peninsula. His students range from anatomy professors pursuing continuing education to undergraduates in study abroad programs. Dr. Petti is often invited to speak about the connection between art and anatomy in medieval and Renaissance Italy at museums, conferences, and universities. The Italian government has invited him to speak at their Cultural Institutes in Los Angeles and New York City, and the University of Palermo in Sicily included him in a seminar series celebrating its 210th anniversary.

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