Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Person-centered Nursing Care 8th Edition


Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Person-centered Nursing Care 8th Edition

Author: RN Taylor, Carol,
RN Lillis, Carol,
RN Lynn, Pamela,
RN LeMone, Priscilla.
Edition: 8th Edition
Year: 2015
Language: English
ISBN 13: 978-1451185614
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN 10: 1451185618
Pages: 1821
File: PDF
Price: 9.99$
Digital Delivery: Via email
Categories: ,

Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Person-centered Nursing Care 8th Edition

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Today’s competitive, market-driven health care environment is challenging the very nature of the professional nursing practice. Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Person-Centered Nursing Care, Eighth Edition, promotes nursing as an evolving art and science, directed to human health and well-being. It challenges students to cultivate the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) and blended competencies they will need to serve patients and the public well. Our aim is to prepare nurses who combine the highest level of scientific knowledge and technological skill with responsible, caring practice. We want to challenge students to identify and master the cognitive and technical skills as well as the interpersonal and ethical/legal skills they will need to effectively nurse the patients in their care. We refuse to allow accountability and caring relationships to become relics of a bygone era.

Those new to nursing can quickly become overwhelmed by the demands placed on the nurse’s knowledge, technical competence, interpersonal skills, and commitment. Therefore, much care has gone into the selection of both the content in this edition and the manner of its presentation. We strive to capture the unique essence of both the art and science of nursing, distilling what the person beginning the study and practice of nursing needs to know. We invite students to identify with the profession, to share in its pride, and to respond to today’s challenges competently, enthusiastically, and accountably.


This text and the entire Taylor Suite have been created with the student’s experience in mind. Care has been taken to appeal to all learning styles. The student-friendly writing style ensures that students will comprehend and retain information. The updated art program and strong features enhance understanding of important concepts. Free video clips clearly demonstrate and reinforce important skill steps; as students watch and listen to the videos, comprehension increases. In addition, each element of the Taylor Suite, which is described later in the preface, coordinates to provide a consistent and cohesive learning experience.


Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Person-Centered Nursing Care, Eighth Edition, is organized into eight units. Ideally, the text is followed sequentially, but every effort has been made to respect the differing needs of diverse curricula and students. Thus, each chapter stands
on its own merit and may be read independently of others.

Unit I, Foundations of Nursing Practice

Unit I opens with a description of contemporary nursing. Successive chapters introduce content foundational to nursing practice: theory, research, and evidence-based practice; health and illness; health of the individual, family, and community; cultural diversity; values, ethics, and advocacy; and legal implications.

Unit II, Health Care Delivery

Unit II is completely revised in light of the continuing changes in health care delivery. The new content highlights nurses’ expanding roles in care coordination as partnerships are forged with patients, families, and communities. Chapters address the variety of community-based health care settings; continuity of care as the patient enters a health care facility is transferred within the facility, and is discharged into another setting within the community, and care provided within the home.

Unit III, Person-Centered Care and the Nursing Process

Unit III offers a detailed, step-by-step guide to each component of the nursing process with practical guidelines and examples included in each chapter. New NANDA International and NIC/NOC content has been added, along with a stronger emphasis on clinical decision-making. Each chapter concludes with a section on “Reflective Practice Leading to Personal Learning” that invites readers to look at their experience with each step of the nursing process, understand it, and learn from it. The goal is always to invite reflection on how we can improve our thoughtful, person-centered practice.

Chapter 10 is completely revised and offers a careful introduction to thoughtful and person-centered practice with expanded content on theories of caring, clinical reasoning, judgment, decision making, and reflective practice. Separate chapters address the nursing process as a whole: Quality and
Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) and blended competencies, critical thinking, assessing, diagnosing, outcome identification and planning, implementing, and evaluating.

Chapter 16 includes expanded content on privacy guidelines and standards for social media, electronic health records (EHRs), reporting, conferring, and using informatics.

Unit IV, Promoting Health Across the Lifespan

Unit IV provides the basis for understanding growth and development across the lifespan and acknowledges nursing’s differing requirements arising from the various developmental stages and abilities to meet developmental tasks.

Unit V, Roles Basic to Nursing Care

Unit V describes major roles in which nurses function as they interact holistically with patients. Chapters focus on the communicator, teacher and counselor, and leader and manager roles of the nurse as a caregiver.

Unit VI, Actions Basic to Nursing Care

Unit VI introduces the foundational skills used by nurses: maintaining asepsis, measuring vital signs, assessing health, promoting safety, incorporating complementary and alternativenative therapies, administering medication, and caring for surgical patients.

Unit VII, Promoting Healthy Physiologic Responses

Unit VII explores the nurse’s role in helping patients meet basic physiologic needs: hygiene; skin integrity and wound care; activity; rest and sleep; comfort and pain management; nutrition; urinary elimination; bowel elimination; oxygenation and perfusion; and fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base
balance. Chapter 38 now has expanded cardiovascular content that includes cardiac function and perfusion. In each chapter, guidelines are included for assessing and diagnosing unhealthy responses and for planning, implementing, and evaluating appropriate care strategies.

Unit VIII, Promoting Healthy Psychosocial Responses

Unit VIII uses the same format as Unit VII to focus on the psychosocial needs of patients: self-concept; stress and adaptation; loss, grief, and dying; sensory functioning; sexuality; and spirituality.


The following themes are interwoven throughout the text to provide a broad knowledge base of nursing essentials while emphasizing holistic care.

Thoughtful Practice and Person-Centered Care

The change in our subtitle, the first title change since the first edition, reflects today’s new emphasis on person-centered care. Readers will see the new emphasis on clinical reasoning, judgment, decision making, and reflective practice in every chapter.

Emphasis on Partnering With Patients, Family, and Professional Caregivers

Today, we have witnessed the health care “industry” transform patients into “customers,” who buy health care (if they are able) as a commodity in the marketplace. We do not believe that a “customer orientation” serves patients or nurses well. One of our students shared her belief that she owes less to a “customer” and even to a “client” than she does to a “patient.” We, therefore, use the term patient—in its most positive sense—to designate the recipient of nursing care.

Careful attention is paid to directing students to identify, value, and develop the interpersonal skills that will allow them to effectively partner with patients, family, and professional caregivers. This edition highlights collaborative practice and nursing strategies for actively engaging patients,
family caregivers, and the public in the development of health goals and strategies to achieve these goals. Patients may be individuals, families, or communities. Care has been taken to communicate that both nurses and patients may be male or female and that they come from every racial and ethnic background and socioeconomic group. Whenever possible, we have tried to avoid male/female distinctions in personal pronouns.

Integrated Nursing Process

After the nursing process is introduced in Unit III, it provides the organizational framework for successive chapters. Chapters in Units VII and VIII, which deal with physiologic and psychosocial responses, begin with a succinct background discussion of the concept, followed by the identification of factors that influence how different individuals respond to these needs. Steps in the nursing process are used to describe related nursing responsibilities. Throughout these chapters, students will find numerous practical examples of how to conduct focused assessments; develop and write diagnostic statements; identify goals and outcomes; and select, implement, and evaluate appropriate nursing interventions. These examples will reinforce the student’s mastery of nursing process skills. This edition highlights the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies. Most chapters in Units VII and VIII conclude with a Nursing Plan of Care that illustrates each step of the nursing process and sample documentation of nursing assessment or intervention. In addition, concept maps demonstrating the nursing process are included in several chapters.

Nursing as an Art and Science

Nursing as science is characterized by a growing body of knowledge that links technical and interpersonal interventions to desired patient outcomes; as an art, nursing demands of its practitioner’s sufficient competency to creatively design individualized strategies to assist patients to reach personal health goals. A unique spirit of caring always must prevail.

New to this edition is the inclusion of Delegation Considerations in each skill. Delegation decision-making information is provided, using delegation guidelines based on American Nurses Association (ANA) and National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) principles and recommendations
(Appendix A). Appendix A, Guidelines for Delegation Decision Making, can be found on the website.

Health and Health Disparities Orientation

Health rather than illness orientation provides a framework for the presentation of content. This edition includes expanded content on health literacy and health disparities. Special features such as Promoting Health, Teaching Tips, and Health Literacy boxes help to highlight this important content.

Holistic Care Across the Lifespan

A holistic orientation to basic human needs is essential across the lifespan. This orientation is emphasized through information about growth and development in Unit IV, Promoting Health Across the Lifespan; through age considerations in many Skills; and through developmental considerations in related tables and displays, as well as diverse ages and needs of patients represented in numerous features. Wherever appropriate, cultural considerations are included.

Attention to Special Needs of the Older Person

Because the age of the population is increasing, nurses encounter growing numbers of older patients in all practice settings. Chapter 19: The Aging Adult, the Focus on the Older Adult boxes, and general considerations for the older patient that appear within the text aim to sensitize students to the special nursing needs of this population. Readers of the eighth edition will find expanded information related to dementia, depression, and delirium; a discussion of cascade iatrogenic; the Fulmer SPICES tool used to identify common problems that lead to negative outcomes in older adults; and the American Geriatrics Society and ANA Position Statement on Restraint Use. The Hendrich II Fall Risk Model and other helpful reference materials are available.

Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning

Unit III, Person-Centered Care and the Nursing Process invites students to reflect on their ability to be the critical difference for recipients of their thoughtful practice. The revised Reflective Practice boxes, Focused Critical Thinking Guides and Developing Clinical Reasoning material in each chapter challenge students to use new knowledge and experience to “think through” learning exercises designed to demonstrate how careful thinking can change outcomes.

Healthy Work Environments

This edition addresses current issues of incivility, nurse bullying, cyber terror, lateral violence, aggressive behavior, and nurses’ use of social media to help readers understand what it takes to have a healthy work environment.

Focus on Nursing Skills

Skills are presented in a concise, straightforward, and simplified format that is intended to facilitate the competent performance of nursing skills. A scientific rationale accompanies each nursing action; many color photographs and illustrations further reinforce mastery. Delegation Considerations assist students and graduate nurses in developing the critical decision-making skills necessary to transfer responsibility for the performance of an activity to another individual and to ensure safe and effective nursing care. Special Considerations, including modifications and age and home health care considerations, are given where appropriate. Unexpected situations and associated interventions are included to help students think critically about the skills they are performing. Also included are documentation guidelines and samples to help students learn what and how
to document when performing skills.

Focus on Community and Expanded Nursing Roles

Patients today spend fewer days in the hospital, are frequently transferred both within the hospital and between health care institutions and home, and need to rely on rapidly proliferating community-based health care resources. New content on accountable care organizations, medical homes, and medical neighborhoods, as well as content on the new roles for nurses (nurse coach, clinical nurse leader, nurse navigator, and nurse care coordinator) highlight both traditional and innovative care in institutional and community-based practice settings.

Focus on Safety

New content highlights today’s emphasis on patient safety, including expanded safety information related to children, adolescents, and older adults. The Institute of Medicine safety content, 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals, and Sentinel Event Statistics are highlighted,
and new information is provided on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Safe Patient Handling and Movement Practices—based on guidelines from VISN 8 Patient Safety Center, 2006, 2007, and 2009—are included in this edition as well as expanded content on patient “hand-offs.”

Research as a Strength to Practice

Content on research and evidence-based practice has been updated and is included in Unit I for increased emphasis early in the learning experience. The updated feature, PICO in Practice: Asking Clinical Questions, encourages readers to delve into research to solve a clinical question using the PICO format and guidelines. Updated Research in Nursing: Bridging the Gap to Evidence-Based Practice boxes, appearing throughout the book, promote the value of research and apply its relevance to nursing practice. Students are challenged to become informed participants in, or consumers of, clinical research.

Up-to-Date Clinical Information

Revisions in each clinical chapter will help educators and students remain current. Sample new content includes:

  • Expanded information on genomics
  • New information on SIDS and SUID (sudden unexplained
    infant death)
  • Expanded discussion of childhood obesity
  • Dangers associated with energy drinks, synthetic marijuana, and bath salts
  • Expanded information on multiple drug-resistant organisms; use of care bundles or evidence-based protocols; the impact of staffing issues on HAIs.
  • Use of alcohol-based hand rubs with Clostridium difficile (C diff)
  • ANA recommendations on reducing the use of restraints
  • Periop: “never events,” new guidelines for preop fasting and skin prep
  • The Joint Commission (TJC) universal protocol and “time-out”
  • Noise prevention in acute care and ICU
  • TJC Sentinel Alert on fatigue in health care workers
  • Role of Pain Resource Nurse
  • New content on gender dysphoria and intersex
  • Expanded content on sensory changes associated with aging
  • TJC 2014 National Patient Safety Goals
  • SBAR/SBARR communication to improve patient “handoffs” from one professional caregiver to another
  • Updated ANA Standards of Practice, International Council of Nurses (ICN) Definition of Nursing, and Healthy People 2020
  • ANA Principles of Delegation
  • Purnell Model of Cultural Competence
  • Social media guidelines
  • Updated content on “Do Not Use” Abbreviations, Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) error-prone abbreviations.
  • Updated variance reports
  • The enhanced content on impaired nurses
  • Updated information on electronic medical records (EMRs), new information technologies, and privacy considerations
  • Inclusion of PUSH tool to assess/document pressure ulcer healing
  • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
  • My Plate food guidance system

Self-Assessment Guides

Fundamentals of Nursing has always encouraged students to be independent learners. Checklists throughout the text (e.g., blended skills assessment, use of nursing process, health assessments) allow students to evaluate their personal strengths and limitations and develop related learning goals.

Table of Contents

Unit 1: Foundations of Nursing Practice

Chapter 1 Introduction to Nursing
Historical Perspectives on Nursing
Definitions of Nursing
Nursing’s Aims and Competencies
Nursing as a Professional Discipline
Educational Preparation for Nursing Practice
Professional Nursing Organizations
Guidelines for Nursing Practice
Current Trends in Health Care and Nursing

Chapter 2 Theory, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice
Nursing Knowledge
Nursing Theory
Nursing Research
Evidence-Based Practice

Chapter 3 Health, Illness, and Disparities
Concepts of Health and Wellness
Concepts of Illness and Disease
Disparities in Health Care
Factors Affecting Health and Illness
Health Promotion and Illness Prevention
Models of Health Promotion and Illness Prevention
Nursing Care to Promote Health and Prevent Illness

Chapter 4 Health of the Individual, Family, and Community
The Individual’s Basic Human Needs
The Family
The Community
Chapter 5 Cultural Diversity
Concepts of Cultural Diversity
Cultural Influences on Health Care
Cultural Influences on Health and Illness
Culturally Competent Nursing Care

Chapter 6 Values, Ethics, and Advocacy
Ethical Conduct
Ethical Experience and Decision Making
Advocacy in Nursing Practice

Chapter 7 Legal Dimensions of Nursing Practice
Legal Concepts
Professional and Legal Regulation of Nursing Practice
Crimes and Torts
Legal Safeguards for the Nurse
Student Liability
Laws Affecting Nursing Practice

Unit 2: Health Care Delivery

Chapter 8 The Health Care Delivery System
Health Care: The Big Picture
Health Care Reform
Organizing Health Care: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Care
Organizing Health Care: Health Care Delivery Systems and Care Coordination
Paying for Health Care
Health Care Settings and Services
Health Care Agencies
Collaborative Care: the Health Care Team
Trends and Issues in Health Care Delivery
Health Care: A Right, a Privilege, or an Obligation of a Moral Society?
Nurses’ Role in Health Care Reform

Chapter 9 Care Coordination and Continuity in Health Care Settings and the Community
Community-Based Nursing Care
Continuity of Care
Care Coordination
Home Health Care Nursing
The Home Visit

Unit 3: Person-Centered Care and the Nursing Process

Chapter 10 Blended Competencies, Clinical Reasoning, and Processes of Person-Centered Care
Thoughtful Practice
Person-Centered Care
The Professional Nurse
The Nursing Process
Reflective Practice

Chapter 11 Assessing
Unique Focus of Nursing Assessment
Assessment and Clinical Reasoning
Assessment and Interpersonal Competence
Types of Nursing Assessments
Preparing for Data Collection
Collecting Data
Identifying Cues and Making Inferences
Validating Data
Clustering Related Data and Identifying Patterns
Reporting and Recording Data
Reflective Practice Leading to Personal Learning

Chapter 12 Diagnosing
Evolution of Nursing Diagnoses
Unique Focus of Nursing Diagnosis
Diagnostic Reasoning and Clinical Reasoning
Diagnostic Reasoning and Interpersonal Competence
Data Interpretation and Analysis
Formulating and Validating Nursing Diagnoses
Documenting Nursing Diagnoses
Nursing Diagnosis: A Critique
Reflective Practice Leading to Personal Learning

Chapter 13 Outcome Identification and Planning
Unique Focus of Nursing Outcome Identification and Planning
Outcome Identification, Planning, and Clinical Reasoning
Outcome Identification, Planning, and Inter-Personal Competence
Comprehensive Planning
Establishing Priorities
Identifying and Writing Outcomes
Identifying Nursing Interventions
Developing Evaluative Strategies
Communicating and Recording the Plan of Nursing Care
Problems Related to Outcome Identification and Planning
A Final Word About NIC/NOC and Standardized Languages
Reflective Practice Leading to Personal Learning

Chapter 14 Implementing
Unique Focus of Nursing Implementation
Clinical Reasoning and Implementing
Implementing and Interpersonal Competence
Types of Nursing Interventions
Implementing the Plan of Care
Continuing Data Collection and Risk Management
Documenting Nursing Care
When a Patient does not Cooperate with the Plan of Care
Delegating Nursing Care
Guide for Students
Reflective Practice Leading to Personal Learning

Chapter 15 Evaluating
Unique Focus of Nursing Evaluation
Clinical Reasoning and Evaluating
Evaluating Quality Care
Reflective Practice Leading to Personal Learning

Chapter 16 Documenting, Reporting, Conferring and Using Informatics
Documenting Care
Reporting Care
Conferring About Care
Using Nursing Informatics

Unit 4: Promoting Health Across the Lifespan

Chapter 17 Developmental Concepts
Principles of Growth and Development
Factors Influencing Growth and Development
Overview of Developmental Theories
Applying Theories of Growth and Development to Nursing Care

Chapter 18 Conception Through Young Adult
Conception and Prenatal Development
Neonate: Birth to 28 Days
Infant: 1 Month to 1 Year
Toddler: 1 to 3 Years
Preschooler: 3 to 6 Years
School-Aged Child: 6 to 12 Years
The Adolescent and Young Adult

Chapter 19 The Aging Adult
Theories of Aging
The Middle Adult
The Older Adult 425
Caring for an Aging Population

Unit 5: Roles Basic to Nursing Care

Chapter 20 Communicator
The Process of Communication
Forms of Communication
Levels of Communication
Factors Influencing Communication
Using Therapeutic Communication in the Nursing Process
Using Therapeutic Communication in the Helping Relationship
Developing Therapeutic Communication Skills
Blocks to Communication
Impaired Verbal Communication

Chapter 21 Teacher and Counselor
Aims of Teaching and Counseling
The Nurse as Teacher
Nursing Process for Patient and Caregiver Teaching
The Nurse as Counselor

Chapter 22 Nurse Leader, Manager, and Care Coordinator
Implementing Leadership and Management Skills in Nursing Care
Care Coordination and the Role of Nursing

Unit 6: Actions Basic to Nursing Care

Chapter 23 Asepsis and Infection Control
The Nursing Process for Infection Prevention and Control

Chapter 24 Vital Signs
Blood Pressure
Nursing Diagnoses
Teaching Vital Signs for Self-Care at Home

Chapter 25 Health Assessment
Health Assessment
The Health History
Physical Assessment
Documentation of Data
The Nurse’s Role in Diagnostic Procedures

Chapter 26 Safety, Security, and Emergency Preparedness
Factors Affecting Safety
The Nursing Process for Maintaining Safety

Chapter 27 Complementary and Alternative Therapies
Introduction to Complementary and Alternative Therapies
CAT Categories
Nursing Implications of CAT

Chapter 28 Medications
Principles of Pharmacology
Principles of Medication Administration
The Nursing Process for Administering Medications

Chapter 29 Perioperative Nursing
The Surgical Experience
The Nursing Process for Preoperative Care
The Nursing Process for Intraoperative Care
Postoperative Nursing Care
The Nursing Process for Ongoing Postoperative Care

Unit 7: Promoting Healthy Physiologic Responses

Chapter 30 Hygiene
Hygiene Practices
Factors Affecting Personal Hygiene
The Nursing Process for Skin Care and Personal Hygiene

Chapter 31 Skin Integrity and Wound Care
Anatomy and Physiology of the Integumentary System
Wounds and Pressure Ulcers
The Nursing Process for Wounds and Pressure Ulcers
Heat and Cold Therapy
The Nursing Process for Heat and Cold Therapy

Chapter 32 Activity
Physiology of Movement and Alignment
Factors Affecting Movement and Alignment
The Nursing Process

Chapter 33 Rest and Sleep
Physiology of Sleep
Factors Affecting Sleep
Common Sleep Disorders
The Nursing Process for Rest and Sleep

Chapter 34 Comfort and Pain Management
The Pain Experience
Factors Affecting the Pain Experience
The Nursing Process for Comfort and Pain Management

Chapter 35 Nutrition
Principles of Nutrition
Factors Affecting Nutrition
The Nursing Process

Chapter 36 Urinary Elimination
Anatomy and Physiology
Factors Affecting Urination
The Nursing Process for Urinary Elimination

Chapter 37 Bowel Elimination
Anatomy and Physiology
Factors Affecting Bowel Elimination
The Nursing Process for Bowel Elimination

Chapter 38 Oxygenation and Perfusion
Anatomy and Physiology of Oxygenation
Factors Affecting Cardiopulmonary Functioning and Oxygenation
The Nursing Process for Oxygenation

Chapter 39 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Principles of Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balance
Disturbances in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
The Nursing Process for Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Promoting Healthy Psychosocial Responses

Chapter 40 Self-Concept
Overview of Self-Concept
The Nursing Process

Chapter 41 Stress and Adaptation
Basic Concepts of Stress and Adaptation
Maintenance of Physiologic and Psychological Homeostasis
Effects of Stress
Factors Affecting Stress and Adaptation
Stress and Adaptation in Nursing
The Nursing Process for the Patient with Stress and Anxiety

Chapter 42 Loss, Grief, and Dying
Concepts of Loss and Grief
Dying and Death
Factors that Affect Grief and Dying
The Nurse as Role Model
The Nursing Process for Grieving or Dying Patients and Families

Chapter 43 Sensory Functioning
The Sensory Experience
Disturbed Sensory Perception
Factors Affecting Sensory Stimulation
The Nursing Process for Sensory Stimulation

Chapter 44 Sexuality
Sexual Health
Sexual Expression
Factors Affecting Sexuality
The Nurse as Role Model
The Nursing Process for the Patient with a Sexual Health Need
Sexual Harassment

Chapter 45 Spirituality
Spiritual Dimension
Concepts Related to Spirituality and Spiritual Health
Factors Affecting Spirituality
Religion and Law, Ethics, and Medicine
Parish Nursing
The Nursing Process



Contributors for the Eighth Edition

Kerry H. Cheever, Ph.D., RN
Professor and Chairperson
Department of Nursing
Moravian College
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
PICO in Practice: Asking Clinical Questions

Carrie Bowman Dalley, MS
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)
Georgetown University Nurse Anesthesia Program
Washington, DC
Chapter 39: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Elizabeth Genazzio, MA, BSN, RN, CNOR, RNFA
Perioperative Nurse and RNFA
Lankenau Medical Center
Wynnewood, Pennsylvania
Faculty Assistant
Delaware County Community College
Media, Pennsylvania
Chapter 29: Perioperative Nursing

Victoria M. Goode, Ph.D. (c), MSNA, CRNA
Nurse Anesthesia Program
Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies
Washington, DC
Chapter 39: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Susan J. Hayden, Ph.D., MSN, BSN, BS, RN
Assistant Professor
College of Nursing
University of Southern Alabama
Mobile, Alabama
Chapter 32: Activity

Catherine Horvath, MSN, BSN, CRNA
Nurse Anesthesia Program
Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies
Washington, DC
Chapter 39: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Donna Marie Jasinski, Ph.D., CRNA
Associate Professor
Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies
Washington, DC
Chapter 39: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Jane C. Rothrock, Ph.D., RN, CNOR, FAAN
Adjunct Professor, Perioperative Nursing
Delaware County Community College
Media, Pennsylvania
Chapter 29: Perioperative Nursing

Margaret Mary Thomas, BS, RN, CNOR
Bryn Mawr Hospital
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
Chapter 29: Perioperative Nursing

Denise H. Tola, MSN, CRNA
Clinical Director
Nurse Anesthesia Program
Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies
Washington, DC
Chapter 39: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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